Up and Down!


The table below lists clubs with a high number of promotions and relegations to and from their national first division (moves between lower levels are not considered here).

"Foun" in the list of promotion years indicates that the club was a founder member of the country's national first division.

Norway's SK Brann of Bergen "enjoyed" eight consecutive years of relegation/promotion between 1979 (relegated) and 1986 (promoted). Their series was "bettered" by Aris of Lemesos in Cyprus from 1996/97 (relegated) to 2005/06 (promoted) - a series of ten consecutive moves between top flight and second level. After remaining at the top level in 2006/07 (by finishing an incredible seven points above the drop zone) Aris immediately started a new series: they exchanged the top two divisions in each of the eight seasons from 2007/08 to 2014/15 and thus did so in eighteen out of nineteen consecutive seasons between 1996 and 2015.

The second "best" series is currently held by Al-Ittihad (Kalba) in the United Arab Emirates, who were promoted to the top level in 2009/10 to start a series of nine consecutive moves between the top two levels until promotion in 2017/18; in 2018/19 they managed to escape relegation. In Spain, Deportivo La Coruńa had seven such seasons from 1961/62 (promoted) to 1967/68 (promoted). A decade later, Hong Kong FC repeated this performance in Hongkong, from 1972/73 (promoted) to 1978/79 (promoted). In the Republic of Ireland, Drogheda United also had a series of seven consecutive ups and downs, from 1993/94 (relegated) to 1999/2000 (relegated).


The records below are up to date as of August 31, 2021. Other countries will be added. Additions and corrections are welcome.
Albania | Algeria | Argentina | Austria | Belgium | Bosnia-Herzegovina | Brazil | Bulgaria | Chile | Colombia | Croatia | Cyprus | Czech Republic | Czechoslovakia | Denmark | England | Faroe Islands | Finland | France | Germany (East) | Germany (West) | Ghana | Greece | Hongkong | Hungary | Iceland | Indonesia | Ireland | Israel | Italy | Japan | Kosovo | Luxembourg | Malta | Mexico | Montenegro | Morocco | Netherlands | (North) Macedonia | Northern Cyprus | Northern Ireland | Norway | Poland | Portugal | Romania | Russia | Scotland | Serbia(-Montenegro) | Slovakia | Slovenia | Spain | Sweden | Switzerland | Turkey | Ukraine | Uruguay | Wales | Yugoslavia

Albania

Since 1930; includes seasons played in groups.

Besëlidhja (Lezhë) [24 moves]
up:   12: 1936, 1949, 1951, 1970, 1972, 1978, 1980, 1984, 1987, 1993, 2000, 2007
down: 12: 1937, 1950, 1952, 1971, 1975, 1979, 1983, 1986, 1990, 1996, 2003, 2008

Luftëtari Gjirokastër (Shqiponja) [24 moves]
up:   12: WWII, 1950, 1954, 1963, 1966, 1975, 1989, 1994, 1999, 2006, 2012, 2016
down: 12: 1948, 1952, 1955, 1964, 1974, 1988, 1991, 1998, 2002, 2007, 2013, 2020

SK Lushnja (Traktori) [22 moves]
up:   11: 1947, 1951, 1960, 1980, 1982, 1988, 1990, 1996, 2008, 2013, 2017
down: 11: 1948, 1952, 1979, 1981, 1987, 1989, 1994, 2006, 2009, 2014, 2018

Tomori (Berat) [22 moves]
up:   11: 1930, 1936, 1950, 1954, 1959, 1962, 1970, 1977, 1989, 1994, 2011
down: 11: 1931, 1948, 1952, 1956, 1961, 1968, 1972, 1988, 1993, 2002, 2013

Apolonia (Fier) [20 moves]
up:   10: WWII, 1967, 1972, 1979, 1985, 2006, 2008, 2011, 2014, 2020
down: 10: 1952, 1971, 1973, 1980, 2003, 2007, 2010, 2013, 2015, 2021
NB: did not play in 1947 season by decision of Central Committee of 
    Albanian Communist Party; this is not counted as relegation.

Skënderbeu (Korçë) [18 moves]
up:    9: Foun, 1976, 1979, 1982, 1986, 1990, 1995, 2005, 2007, 2009
down:  9: 1975, 1978, 1981, 1985, 1989, 1992, 2001, 2006, 2008

Besa (Kavajë) [16 moves]
up:    8: 1932, 1953, 1978, 1986, 2000, 2002, 2005, 2012
down:  8: 1952, 1977, 1985, 1999, 2001, 2004, 2011, 2014
NB: did not play in 1947 season by decision of Central Committee of 
    Albanian Communist Party; this is not counted as relegation.

Pogradeci (Ylli i Kuq) [14 moves]
up:    7: 1935, 1949, 1951, 1964, 1967, 1991, 2011
down:  7: 1937, 1950, 1953, 1965, 1968, 1993, 2012

Elbasani [13 moves]
up:    6: Foun, 1933, 1953, 1958, 2002, 2010, 2014
down:  7: 1932, 1952, 1955, 2000, 2009, 2011, 2015

Kastrioti (Krujë) [11 moves]
up:    6: 1990, 1995, 2006, 2009, 2018, 2020
down:  5: 1993, 1996, 2008, 2014, 2019

Bylis (Ballshi) [10 moves]
up:    5: 1996, 2008, 2010, 2015, 2019
down:  5: 2003, 2009, 2014, 2016, 2021

Naftëtari (Kuçovë (Qyteti Stalin)) [10 moves]
up:    5: 1945, 1950, 1968, 1973, 1978
down:  5: 1948, 1951, 1970, 1976, 1987
NB: did not play in 1947 season by decision of Central Committee of 
    Albanian Communist Party; this is not counted as relegation.

Algeria

Since 1964; includes seasons played in groups.

ASM Oran [17 moves]
up:    8: Foun, 1971, 1975, 1977, 1995, 1998, 2000, 2006, 2014
down:  9: 1969, 1974, 1976, 1993, 1996, 1999, 2003, 2007, 2016

CS Constantine [15 moves]
up:    8: 1970, 1977, 1986, 1990, 1994, 2000, 2004, 2011
down:  7: 1973, 1979, 1987, 1991, 1999, 2001, 2006

USM Bel-Abbčs [14 moves]
up:    7: 1967, 1980, 1988, 1993, 2012, 2014, 2016
down:  7: 1976, 1986, 1992, 1994, 2013, 2015, 2021

CA Batna [12 moves]
up:    6: 1975, 1993, 2005, 2009, 2011, 2016
down:  6: 1981, 2004, 2007, 2010, 2013, 2017

NA Hussein Dey [12 moves]
up:    6: Foun, 1991, 1996, 1998, 2002, 2011, 2014
down:  6: 1986, 1995, 1997, 1999, 2010, 2012

USM Blida [11 moves]
up:    5: Foun, 1972, 1992, 1997, 2015, 2017
down:  6: 1967, 1975, 1996, 2011, 2016, 2018

WA Tlemcen [11 moves]
up:    6: 1971, 1973, 1984, 1990, 2009, 2020
down:  5: 1972, 1974, 1988, 2008, 2013

GC Mascara [10 moves]
up:    5: 1972, 1979, 1994, 1998, 2004
down:  5: 1973, 1987, 1995, 1999, 2005

RC Kouba [10 moves]
up:    5: 1965, 1988, 1998, 2001, 2008
down:  5: 1985, 1991, 1999, 2004, 2009

USM Alger [10 moves]
up:    5: Foun, 1969, 1974, 1981, 1987, 1995
down:  5: 1965, 1972, 1980, 1983, 1990

Argentina

Since 1895; no proper promotion or relegation until 1903.

Quilmes [23 moves]
up:   11: Insc, 1919, 1934, 1949, 1961, 1965, 1975, 1981, 1991, 2003, 2010, 2012
down: 12: 1916, 1933, 1937, 1951, 1962, 1970, 1980, 1982, 1992, 2007, 2011, 2017
       [Quilmes inscribed for the league in 1900]

Banfield [19 moves]
up:   10: 1912, 1919, 1939, 1946, 1962, 1973, 1987, 1993, 2001, 2014
down:  9: 1917, 1934, 1944, 1954, 1972, 1978, 1988, 1997, 2012

Chacarita Juniors [14 moves]
up:    7: 1924, 1941, 1959, 1983, 1999, 2009, 2017
down:  7: 1940, 1956, 1979, 1986, 2004, 2010, 2018

Ferro Carril Oeste [14 moves]
up:    7: 1912, 1919, 1948, 1958, 1963, 1970, 1978
down:  7: 1918, 1946, 1957, 1962, 1968, 1977, 2000

Tigre [14 moves]
up:    7: 1912, 1934, 1945, 1953, 1967, 1979, 2007
down:  7: 1933, 1942, 1950, 1958, 1968, 1980, 2019

Lanús [13 moves]
up:    7: 1919, 1950, 1964, 1971, 1976, 1990, 1992
down:  6: 1949, 1961, 1970, 1972, 1977, 1991

Unión (Santa Fe) [13 moves]
up:    7: 1966, 1968, 1974, 1989, 1996, 2011, 2014
down:  6: 1967, 1970, 1988, 1992, 2003, 2013

Argentinos Juniors [11 moves]
up:    6: 1931, 1956, 1997, 2004, 2015, 2017
down:  5: 1937, 1996, 2002, 2014, 2016

Gimnasia y Esgrima (La Plata) [11 moves]
up:    6: 1915, 1944, 1947, 1952, 1984, 2013
down:  5: 1943, 1945, 2051, 1979, 2011

Austria

Since 1911.

Linzer ASK [15 moves]
up:    8: 1939, 1950, 1958, 1979, 1992, 1994, 2007, 2017
down:  7: 1941, 1955, 1978, 1989, 1993, 2001, 2011

SV Austria Salzburg/RB Salzburg [13 moves]
up:    7: 1953, 1959, 1962, 1965, 1967, 1978, 1989
down:  6: 1957, 1961, 1963, 1966, 1977, 1985

First Vienna FC [13 moves]
up:    6: Foun, 1919, 1969, 1976, 1982, 1984, 1986
down:  7: 1914, 1968, 1974, 1980, 1983, 1985, 1992

1.Simmeringer SC [13 moves]
up:    6: Foun, 1937, 1951, 1965, 1970, 1974, 1982
down:  7: 1928, 1938, 1964, 1966, 1972, 1975, 1983

Wiener AC [11 moves]
up:    5: Foun, 1922, 1924, 1942, 1953, 1956
down:  6: 1921, 1923, 1936, 1948, 1954, 1965

Schwarz-Weiß Bregenz [10 moves]
up:    5: 1954, 1966, 1970, 1972, 1999
down:  5: 1955, 1969, 1971, 1973, 2005

WSV Donawitz/DSV Alpine [10 moves]
up:    5: 1958, 1968, 1971, 1984, 1990
down:  5: 1960, 1969, 1974, 1986, 1992

Kapfenberger SV [10 moves]
up:    5: 1951, 1954, 1961, 1963, 2008
down:  5: 1952, 1959, 1962, 1967, 2012

FC Wacker/FC Tirol Innsbruck [10 moves]
up:    5: 1964, 1981, 2004, 2010, 2018
down:  5: 1979, 2002, 2008, 2014, 2019
NB: relegation 2002 (as reigning champions) due to financial problems.

Belgium

Since 1895; organised promotion and relegation since 1905.

KV Mechelen [25 moves]
up:   13: 1921, 1924, 1926, 1928, 1963, 1965, 1971, 1981, 1983, 1999, 2002, 2007, 2019
down: 12: 1922, 1925, 1927, 1956, 1964, 1969, 1977, 1982, 1997, 2001, 2003, 2018

RWDM (Racing CB, Racing White) [19 moves]
up:    9: Foun, 1926, 1932, 1942, 1945, 1954, 1965, 1985, 1990, 2001
down: 10: 1925, 1930, 1934, 1943, 1952, 1955, 1984, 1989, 1998, 2002

Berchem Sport [14 moves]
up:    7: 1922, 1934, 1943, 1962, 1972, 1978, 1986
down:  7: 1933, 1936, 1960, 1966, 1976, 1981, 1987

Beringen [14 moves]
up:    7: 1950, 1952, 1955, 1958, 1962, 1972, 1983
down:  7: 1951, 1953, 1957, 1960, 1970, 1982, 1984

Cercle Brugge [12 moves]
up:    6: 1898, 1938, 1961, 1971, 1979, 2003, 2018
down:  6: 1936, 1946, 1966, 1978, 1997, 2015
NB: Cercle Brugge first entered the championship in 1898/99.

RC Mechelen [12 moves]
up:    6: 1910, 1914, 1925, 1948, 1975, 1988
down:  6: 1912, 1924, 1937, 1958, 1976, 1990

Tilleur [12 moves]
up:    6: 1925, 1928, 1933, 1939, 1948, 1964
down:  6: 1926, 1929, 1934, 1946, 1959, 1967

Racing Club Bruxelles [11 moves]
up:    5: Foun, 1926, 1932, 1942, 1945, 1954
down:  6: 1925, 1930, 1934, 1943, 1952, 1955

Club Brugge [10 moves]
up:    5: Foun, 1929, 1935, 1946, 1949, 1959
down:  5: 1928, 1933, 1939, 1947, 1951
NB: Club Brugge did not enter the championship in 1896/97 and 1897/98.

Racing Gent [10 moves]
up:    5: 1908, 1911, 1923, 1931, 1952
down:  5: 1909, 1922, 1930, 1935, 1953
NB: before organised promotion and relegation, Racing Gent also played
    at the top level in the seasons 1898/99 and 1899/00.

Bosnia-Herzegovina

Since 1995; the addition of the Croatian clubs in 2000 and those of the
Serbian clubs in 2002 is considered a promotion for the clubs in question.

Borac Banja Luka [9 moves]
up:    5: 2002, 2006, 2008, 2017, 2019
down:  4: 2005, 2007, 2016, 2018

Olimpik Sarajevo [9 moves]
up:    4: Foun, 1997, 2000, 2009, 2020
down:  5: 1996, 1998, 2002, 2017, 2021

Buducnost Banovici [8 moves]
up:    4: 1998, 2002, 2004, 2010
down:  4: 2001, 2003, 2006, 2011

Travnik [7 moves]
up:    3: Foun, 2000, 2003, 2007
down:  4: 1998, 2001, 2006, 2016

NB: also considering moves in Yugoslavia, we obtain the following records: 

Borac Banja Luka [17 moves]
up:    9: 1961, 1970, 1975, 1989, 2002, 2006, 2008, 2017, 2019
down:  8: 1962, 1974, 1981, 1993, 2005, 2007, 2016, 2018

Celik Zenica [12 moves]    
up:    6: 1966, 1968, 1979, 1983, 1985, 1995
down:  6: 1967, 1978, 1980, 1984, 1989, 2020

Brazil

Since 1971; until 1980 no proper promotion, until 1987 no proper relegation,
and lots of messing about with formats in general.

América-MG [13 moves]
up:    7: 1992, 1997, 1999, 2010, 2015, 2017, 2020
down:  6: 1993, 1998, 2001, 2011, 2016, 2018

Coritiba [11 moves]
up:    5:       1992, 1995, 2007, 2010, 2019
down:  6: 1989, 1993, 2005, 2009, 2017, 2020

Sport Recife [11 moves]
up:    6: 1980, 1990, 2006, 2011, 2013, 2019
down:  5: 1989, 2001, 2009, 2012, 2018

Vitória [11 moves]
up:    5:       1987, 1992, 2007, 2012, 2015
down:  6: 1982, 1991, 2004, 2010, 2014, 2018

Goiás [9 moves]
up:    4:       1994, 1999, 2012, 2018
down:  5: 1993, 1998, 2010, 2015, 2020

Ponte Preta [9 moves]
up:    4:       1984, 1997, 2011, 2014
down:  5: 1983, 1986, 2006, 2013, 2017

Santa Cruz [9 moves]
up:    4:       1992, 1999, 2005, 2015
down:  5: 1988, 1993, 2001, 2006, 2016

Criciúma [8 moves]
up:    4: 1987, 1992, 2003, 2012
down:  4: 1988, 1997, 2004, 2014

Atlético-PR [7 moves]
up:    4: 1987, 1990, 1995, 2012
down:  3: 1989, 1993, 2011

Bahia [7 moves]
up:    4: 1981, 1999, 2010, 2016
down:  3: 1997, 2003, 2014

Fortaleza [7 moves]
up:    4: 1992, 2002, 2004, 2018
down:  3: 1993, 2003, 2006

Guarani [7 moves]
up:    4: 1981, 1987, 1991, 2009
down:  3:       1989, 2004, 2010

Vasco da Gama [7 moves]
up:    3:       2009, 2014, 2016
down:  4: 2008, 2013, 2015, 2020

Bulgaria

Since 1937.

Minyor Pernik [18 moves]
up:    9: 1950, 1966, 1972, 1979, 1984, 1987, 1990, 1996, 2008
down:  9: 1962, 1970, 1977, 1981, 1985, 1989, 1992, 2001, 2013

Spartak Varna [18 moves]
up:    9: 1949, 1953, 1965, 1968, 1975, 1982, 1992, 1995, 2006
down:  9: 1952, 1964, 1966, 1974, 1978, 1989, 1994, 2005, 2009

Cherno More Varna [15 moves]
up:    8: 1948, 1951, 1956, 1960, 1977, 1988, 1993, 2000
down:  7: 1949, 1955, 1959, 1976, 1986, 1990, 1994

Pirin Blagoevgrad [15 moves]
up:    8: 1973, 1982, 1984, 1998, 2004, 2007, 2015, 2021
down:  7: 1981, 1983, 1995, 2000, 2006, 2011, 2018

Chernomorets Burgas (Botev) [14 moves]
up:    7: 1948, 1965, 1977, 1986, 1989, 1999, 2007
down:  7: 1949, 1973, 1985, 1988, 1994, 2004, 2014
NB: Botev changed name to Chernomorets in 1968; an earlier club called Chernomorets
    had played at the first level between 1937 and 1939. 

Dunav Ruse [14 moves]
up:    7: 1937, 1957, 1968, 1974, 1984, 1988, 2016
down:  7: 1940, 1967, 1973, 1977, 1986, 1991, 2020

Chile

Since 1933.

Rangers (Talca) [18 moves]
up:    9: 1952, 1977, 1981, 1988, 1993, 1997, 2000, 2007, 2011
down:  9: 1976, 1978, 1987, 1989, 1994, 1999, 2006, 2009, 2014

Santiago Wanderers [17 moves]
up:    9: 1936, 1943, 1978, 1982, 1989, 1995, 1999, 2009, 2019
down:  8: 1937, 1977, 1980, 1984, 1991, 1998, 2007, 2017

Deportes La Serena [15 moves]
up:    8: 1957, 1961, 1980, 1983, 1987, 1996, 2003, 2019
down:  7: 1959, 1976, 1982, 1984, 1995, 1999, 2012
 
Deportes Temuco (Green Cross) [15 moves]
up:    7: Foun, 1938, 1960, 1963, 1982, 1991, 2001, 2016
down:  8: 1934, 1958, 1962, 1980, 1984, 1998, 2005, 2018

Everton [13 moves]
up:    7: 1943, 1974, 1982, 1999, 2003, 2012, 2016
down:  6: 1972, 1981, 1995, 2000, 2010, 2014

O'Higgins [11 moves]
up:    6: 1954, 1964, 1976, 1987, 1998, 2005
down:  5: 1963, 1975, 1985, 1996, 2001

Coquimbo Unido [10 moves]
up:    5: 1962, 1977, 1983, 1990, 2018
down:  5: 1965, 1980, 1984, 2007, 2020

Deportes (Municipal) Iquique [10 moves]
up:    5: 1979, 1992, 1997, 2008, 2010
down:  5: 1990, 1993, 1999, 2009, 2020

Colombia

Since 1948; no proper promotion or relegation until 1991. 

Cúcuta Deportivo [9 moves]
up:    4: 1949, 1954, 1996, 2005, 2014, 2018
down:  5: 1953, 1995, 1997, 2013, 2015, 2020
NB: Cúcuta were disbanded in 2020.

Real Cartagena [7 moves]
up:    3: 1970, 1991, 1999, 2004, 2008
down:  4: 1971, 1992, 2002, 2007, 2012
NB: participation in 1971 due to temporary acquisition of place of
    Atlético Bucaramanga; entry in 1992 by acquisition of place of
    Sporting Barranquilla.

Boyacá Chicó [6 moves]
up:    3: 2003, 2017, 2019
down:  3: 2016, 2018, 2021

Corporación Tuluá [6 moves]
up:    3: 1993, 2009, 2014
down:  3: 2004, 2010, 2017

Atlético Huila [5 moves]
up:    3: 1992, 1997, 2021
down:  2: 1996, 2019

Unión Magdalena (Samarios) (Santa Marta) [5 moves]
up:    2: 1950, 1955, 1958, 1962, 2001, 2018
down:  3: 1954, 1957, 1960, 1999, 2005, 2019

Atlético Bucaramanga [4 moves]
up:    2: 1948, 1955, 1971, 1995, 2015
down:  2: 1953, 1970, 1994, 2008
NB: sold place in 1971 season to Real Cartagena.

Fortaleza FC [4 moves]
up:    2: 2013, 2015
down:  2: 2014, 2016

Deportes Pereira [4 moves]
up:    2: 1948, 1955, 2000, 2019
down:  2: 1953, 1997, 2011

Deportes Quindío [4 moves]
up:    2: 1950, 1954, 2001, 2021
down:  2: 1952, 2000, 2013

Croatia

Since 1992.

Cibalia Vinkovci [7 moves]
up:    3: Foun, 1998, 2005, 2016
down:  4: 1997, 2004, 2013, 2018

Hrvatski dragovoljac Zagreb [7 moves]
up:    4: 1995, 2010, 2013, 2021
down:  3: 2002, 2011, 2014

Inter (Inker) Zapresic [7 moves]
up:    3: Foun, 2003, 2007, 2015
down:  4: 1997, 2006, 2013, 2020

Zadar [7 moves]
up:    3: Foun, 1996, 2001, 2007
down:  4: 1995, 1999, 2005, 2015

Istra Pula [6 moves]
up:    3: Foun, 1999, 2004, 2009
down:  3: 1997, 2000, 2007

Marsonia Slavonski Brod [6 moves]
up:    3: 1994, 2009, 2003
down:  3: 1997, 2002, 2004

Medimurje Cakovec [6 moves]
up:    3: 2000, 2004, 2009
down:  3: 2002, 2008, 2010

NB: also considering moves in Yugoslavia, we obtain the following records: 

Zagreb (Borac) [16 moves]
up:    8: 1950, 1954, 1964, 1973, 1976, 1980, 1991, 2014
down:  8: 1953, 1958, 1970, 1974, 1979, 1982, 2013, 2016

Cibalia (Dinamo) Vinkovci [10 moves]
up:    5: 1982, 1992, 1998, 2005, 2016
down:  5: 1987, 1997, 2004, 2013, 2018

Cyprus

Since 1934.

Aris (Lemesos) [30 moves]
up:   15: Foun, 1954, 1956, 1972, 1982, 1994, 1998, 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2009, 2011, 2013, 2015, 2021
down: 15: 1939, 1955, 1970, 1981, 1993, 1997, 1999, 2001, 2003, 2005, 2008, 2010, 2012, 2014, 2018

Pafos FC (AEP, APOP) (Paphos) [27 moves]
up:   14: 1966, 1971, 1973, 1977, 1981, 1985, 1992, 1996, 1999, 2006, 2008, 2012, 2015, 2017
down: 13: 1968, 1972, 1974, 1980, 1983, 1991, 1993, 1998, 2005, 2007, 2011, 2013, 2016

Alki (Larnaka) [16 moves]
up:    8: 1960, 1982, 1989, 1995, 2001, 2004, 2007, 2010
down:  8: 1981, 1988, 1992, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2009, 2014

Evagoras (Paphos) [16 moves] [merged 2000 into AE Paphos]
up:    8: 1968, 1972, 1981, 1984, 1989, 1991, 1995, 1997
down:  8: 1969, 1980, 1982, 1985, 1990, 1994, 1996, 1999

Anagenissi (Dherinia) [12 moves]
up:    6: 1987, 1996, 1999, 2003, 2011, 2016
down:  6: 1988, 1998, 2000, 2004, 2012, 2017

APEP (Pitsilia) [12 moves]
up:    6: 1987, 1990, 1993, 1996, 2005, 2008
down:  6: 1988, 1991, 1994, 1997, 2006, 2010

Ermis (Aradippos) [12 moves]
up:    6: 1983, 1985, 2001, 2009, 2013, 2020
down:  6: 1984, 1987, 2002, 2012, 2019, 2021

Nea Salamina [12 moves]
up:    6: 1955, 1980, 2002, 2004, 2009, 2011
down:  6: 1979, 2001, 2003, 2008, 2010, 2021

Olympiakos (Lefkosia) [12 moves]
up:    6: Foun, 1938, 1984, 1998, 2010, 2017, 2019
down:  6: 1937, 1983, 1997, 2008, 2013, 2018

Omonia (Aradippos) [10 moves]
up:    5: 1978, 1986, 1988, 1991, 1993
down:  5: 1985, 1987, 1989, 1992, 1996

NB: in 2000 APOP and Evagoras merged to form AE Paphos, taking over the place
    of APOP in the first division; the merger club remained at the top level
    for 5 seasons before resuming old habits; while at the second level, AEP
    merged in 2014 with AEK (Kouklion), just relegated from the top flight,
    into Pafos FC.

Czech Republic

Since 1993.

Dynamo Ceské Budejovice [10 moves]
up:    5: Foun, 1999, 2003, 2005, 2014, 2019
down:  5: 1998, 2000, 2004, 2013, 2015

Hradec Kralové [10 moves]
up:    5: Foun, 2001, 2010, 2014, 2016, 2021
down:  5: 2000, 2003, 2013, 2015, 2017

Sleszký Opava (Kaucuk) [8 moves]
up:    4: 1995, 2001, 2003, 2018
down:  4: 2000, 2002, 2005, 2021

Pribram (Dukla (Praha), Marila) [7 moves]
up:    3: Foun, 1997, 2008, 2018
down:  4: 1994, 2007, 2017, 2021

Viktoria Plzen [6 moves]
up:    3: Foun, 2000, 2003, 2005
down:  3: 1999, 2001, 2004

NB: also considering moves in Czechoslovakia, we obtain the following records: 

Viktoria Plzen (Skoda) [25 moves]
up:   13: 1931, 1939, 1943, 1961, 1967, 1970, 1972, 1986, 1988, 1993, 2000, 2003, 2005
down: 12: 1938, 1942, 1952, 1963, 1968, 1971, 1980, 1987, 1989, 1999, 2001, 2004

SK Hradec Kralové (Spartak) [23 moves]
up:   12: 1955, 1959, 1964, 1972, 1980, 1987, 1990, 2001, 2010, 2014, 2016, 2021
down: 11: 1958, 1963, 1966, 1973, 1981, 1989, 2000, 2003, 2013, 2015, 2017

Bohemians Praha (AFK Vrsovice, Spartak Stalingrad) [17 moves]
up:    8: Foun, 1940, 1953, 1958, 1966, 1969, 1973, 1996, 1999
down:  9: 1935, 1951, 1954, 1965, 1968, 1970, 1995, 1997, 2003
NB: Bohemians folded and neither of the two clubs claiming its heritage
    (Bohemians 1905 and Bohemians/Strízkov), both of whom meanwhile made
    it to the Czech top level, can reasonably be considered its successor
    (though Bohemians 1905 have the stronger case).

Zbrojovka Brno (SK Zidenice, Boby Brno) [16 moves]
up:    8: 1933, 1948, 1962, 1971, 1989, 1992, 2012, 2020
down:  8: 1947, 1949, 1967, 1983, 1991, 2011, 2018, 2021

Dynamo Ceské Budejovice [15 moves]
up:    8: 1947, 1985, 1991, 1999, 2003, 2005, 2014, 2019
down:  7: 1948, 1987, 1998, 2000, 2004, 2013, 2015

Fastav Zlin (Bata, Svit) [13 moves]
up:    7: 1938, 1950, 1952, 1969, 1993, 2002, 2015
down:  6: 1947, 1951, 1953, 1971, 1996, 2009

SK Kladno (SONP) [12 moves]
up:    6: 1925, 1948, 1951, 1960, 1969, 2006
down:  6: 1947, 1949, 1958, 1965, 1970, 2010

Czechoslovakia

Since 1925 and until 1993.  The nazi-enforced separation of Bohemia-Moravia
and Slovakia (between 1938 and 1945) is here considered as a separation of
the Czechoslovak league into two groups, and clubs from both are considered
to have played at the first level, as the first reunified league in 1945/46
included 20 clubs (split over two groups), among which were the top-11 of the
league of Bohemia-Moravia in 1943/44 and the top-6 of the Slovak league.
The last Czechoslovak league season was held in 1992/93; here only clubs
with at least 10 moves are listed between 1924 and 1993 are listed; for
further records since 1993 see the entries on the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

Viktoria Plzen (Skoda) [18 moves]
up:    9: 1931, 1939, 1943, 1961, 1967, 1970, 1972, 1986, 1988
down:  9: 1938, 1942, 1952, 1963, 1968, 1971, 1980, 1987, 1989
NB: moved 7 more times since 1993.

Spartak Hradec Kralové [13 moves]
up:    7: 1955, 1959, 1964, 1972, 1980, 1987, 1990
down:  6: 1958, 1963, 1966, 1973, 1981, 1989
NB: moved 9 more times since 1993.

Cechie Karlin (Dukla) [13 moves]
up:    6: Foun, 1927, 1931, 1933, 1945, 1947, 1949
down:  7: 1926, 1930, 1932, 1935, 1946, 1948, 1951

Bohemians Praha (AFK Vrsovice, Spartak Stalingrad) [12 moves]
up:    6: Foun, 1940, 1953, 1958, 1966, 1969, 1973
down:  6: 1935, 1951, 1954, 1965, 1968, 1970
NB: moved 5 more times since 1993.

SK Zilina (ZVL) [12 moves]
up:    6: 1938, 1953, 1958, 1961, 1966, 1982
down:  6: 1952, 1956, 1959, 1962, 1978, 1988
NB: moved 3 more times since 1993.

SK Liben [11 moves]
up:    5: Foun, 1928, 1932, 1938, 1940, 1946
down:  6: 1926, 1929, 1933, 1939, 1941, 1947

Spartak Trnava (Rapid) [11 moves]
up:    6: 1938, 1947, 1951, 1954, 1964, 1991
down:  5: 1946, 1950, 1952, 1962, 1990
NB: moved 2 more times since 1993.

Zbrojovka Brno (SK Zidenice, Boby Brno) [11 moves]
up:    6: 1933, 1948, 1962, 1971, 1989, 1992
down:  5: 1947, 1949, 1967, 1983, 1991
NB: moved 4 more times since 1993.

Tatran Presov (Slavia, Dukla) [11 moves]
up:    6: 1938, 1949, 1969, 1977, 1980, 1990
down:  5: 1944, 1966, 1974, 1979, 1988
NB: moved 5 more times since 1993.

SK Kladno (SONP) [10 moves]
up:    5: 1925, 1948, 1951, 1960, 1969
down:  5: 1947, 1949, 1958, 1965, 1970
NB: moved 2 more times since 1993.

Denmark

Since 1929. 

B 1909 [22 moves]
up:   11: 1940, 1948, 1950, 1954, 1967, 1970, 1974, 1976, 1981, 1983, 1992
down: 11: 1946, 1949, 1953, 1966, 1969, 1972, 1975, 1977, 1982, 1984, 1993
NB: due to World War II, B 1909's first promotion did not get
    effective until 1945.

Viborg FF [15 moves]
up:    8: 1980, 1989, 1993, 1995, 1998, 2013, 2015, 2021
down:  7: 1981, 1990, 1994, 1997, 2008, 2014, 2017

Esbjerg fB [14 moves]
up:    7: 1932, 1949, 1974, 1999, 2001, 2012, 2018
down:  7: 1938, 1969, 1986, 2000, 2011, 2017, 2020

Køge BK [14 moves] (now into HB Køge)
up:    7: 1939, 1957, 1960, 1965, 1970, 1979, 2002
down:  7: 1956, 1959, 1963, 1967, 1978, 1985, 2003

AGF [13 moves]
up:    7: 1930, 1953, 1971, 1976, 2007, 2011, 2015
down:  6: 1952, 1968, 1973, 2006, 2010, 2014

Silkeborg IF [13 moves]
up:    7: 1987, 2004, 2009, 2014, 2016, 2019, 2021
down:  6: 2003, 2007, 2013, 2015, 2018, 2020

Vejle B [13 moves]
up:    7: 1956, 1995, 2001, 2006, 2008, 2018, 2020
down:  6: 1992, 2000, 2002, 2007, 2009, 2019
NB: in 2011 Vejle B and Kolding IF merged into Vejle Boldklub Kolding; the new club
    took Vejle's place at the second level but was dissolved in 2013 and Vejle took
    the place of the merger club again (still at the second level)

HB Køge (includes Herfølge BK) [12 moves]
up:    6: 1980, 1983, 1995, 2003, 2009, 2011
down:  6: 1981, 1990, 2001, 2005, 2010, 2012
NB: in 2009 Køge BK and Herfølge BK merged into HB Køge; the new club
    took newly promoted Herfølge BK's place at the first level

B 93 [11 moves]
up:    5: Foun, 1958, 1963, 1974, 1984, 1998
down:  6: 1954, 1959, 1965, 1983, 1985, 1999

Randers FC (includes Randers Freja) [11 moves]
up:    6: 1969, 1985, 1987, 2004, 2006, 2012
down:  5: 1978, 1986, 1988, 2005, 2011

AaB [10 moves]
up:    5: Foun, 1962, 1964, 1972, 1978, 1986
down:  5: 1947, 1963, 1971, 1977, 1980

Fremad Amager [10 moves]
up:    5: 1931, 1938, 1975, 1979, 1994
down:  5: 1935, 1948, 1976, 1980, 1995

Lyngby BK [10 moves]
up:    5: 1979, 2007, 2010, 2016, 2019
down:  5: 2002, 2008, 2012, 2018, 2021

OB [10 moves]
up:    5: Foun, 1947, 1957, 1966, 1975, 1999
down:  5: 1933, 1955, 1962, 1968, 1998

England

Since 1888. 

Birmingham City (Small Heath, Birmingham) [24 moves]
up:   12: 1894, 1901, 1903, 1921, 1948, 1955, 1972, 1980, 1985, 2002, 2007, 2009
down: 12: 1896, 1902, 1908, 1939, 1950, 1965, 1979, 1984, 1986, 2006, 2008, 2011

Leicester City (Leicester Fosse) [23 moves]
up:   12: 1908, 1925, 1937, 1954, 1957, 1971, 1980, 1983, 1994, 1996, 2003, 2014
down: 11: 1909, 1935, 1939, 1955, 1969, 1978, 1981, 1987, 1995, 2002, 2004

Manchester City (Ardwick) [21 moves]
up:   11: 1899, 1903, 1910, 1928, 1947, 1951, 1966, 1985, 1989, 2000, 2002
down: 10: 1902, 1909, 1926, 1938, 1950, 1963, 1983, 1987, 1996, 2001

West Bromwich Albion [21 moves]
up:   10: Foun, 1902, 1911, 1931, 1949, 1976, 2002, 2004, 2008, 2010, 2020
down: 11: 1901, 1904, 1927, 1938, 1973, 1986, 2003, 2006, 2009, 2018, 2021

Bolton Wanderers [19 moves]
up:    9: Foun, 1900, 1905, 1909, 1911, 1935, 1978, 1995, 1997, 2001
down: 10: 1899, 1903, 1908, 1910, 1933, 1964, 1980, 1996, 1998, 2012

Middlesbrough [18 moves]
up:    9: 1902, 1927, 1929, 1974, 1988, 1992, 1995, 1998, 2016
down:  9: 1924, 1928, 1954, 1982, 1989, 1993, 1997, 2009, 2017

Sheffield Wednesday (The Wednesday) [18 moves]
up:    9: 1892, 1900, 1926, 1950, 1952, 1956, 1959, 1984, 1991
down:  9: 1899, 1920, 1937, 1951, 1955, 1958, 1970, 1990, 2000

Sunderland [18 moves]
up:    9: 1890, 1964, 1976, 1980, 1990, 1996, 1999, 2005, 2007
down:  9: 1958, 1970, 1977, 1985, 1991, 1997, 2003, 2006, 2017

Norwich City [17 moves]
up:    9: 1972, 1975, 1982, 1986, 2004, 2011, 2015, 2019, 2021
down:  8: 1974, 1981, 1985, 1995, 2005, 2014, 2016, 2020

Sheffield United [16 moves]
up:    8: 1893, 1939, 1953, 1961, 1971, 1990, 2006, 2019
down:  8: 1934, 1949, 1956, 1968, 1976, 1994, 2007, 2021

Derby County [15 moves]
up:    7: Foun, 1912, 1915, 1926, 1969, 1987, 1996, 2007
down:  8: 1907, 1914, 1921, 1953, 1980, 1991, 2002, 2008

Burnley [14 moves]
up:    7: Foun, 1898, 1913, 1947, 1973, 2009, 2014, 2016
down:  7: 1897, 1900, 1930, 1971, 1976, 2010, 2015

Nottingham Forest [14 moves]
up:    7: 1892, 1907, 1922, 1957, 1977, 1994, 1998
down:  7: 1906, 1911, 1925, 1972, 1993, 1997, 1999

Wolverhampton Wanderers [14 moves]
up:    7: Foun, 1932, 1967, 1977, 1983, 2003, 2009, 2018
down:  7: 1906, 1965, 1976, 1982, 1984, 2004, 2012

Chelsea [13 moves]
up:    7: 1907, 1912, 1930, 1963, 1977, 1984, 1989
down:  6: 1910, 1924, 1962, 1975, 1979, 1988

Crystal Palace [13 moves]
up:    7: 1969, 1979, 1989, 1994, 1997, 2004, 2013
down:  6: 1973, 1981, 1993, 1995, 1998, 2005

Leeds United [13 moves]
up:    7: 1924, 1928, 1932, 1956, 1964, 1990, 2020
down:  6: 1927, 1931, 1947, 1960, 1982, 2004

Newcastle United [13 moves]
up:    7: 1898, 1948, 1965, 1984, 1993, 2010, 2017
down:  6: 1934, 1961, 1978, 1989, 2009, 2016

Stoke City (Stoke) [13 moves]
up:    6: Foun, 1891, 1922, 1933, 1963, 1979, 2008
down:  7: 1890, 1907, 1923, 1953, 1977, 1985, 2018

West Ham United [13 moves]
up:    7: 1923, 1958, 1981, 1991, 1993, 2005, 2012
down:  6: 1932, 1978, 1989, 1992, 2003, 2011

Manchester United (Newton Heath) [11 moves]
up:    6: 1892, 1906, 1925, 1936, 1938, 1975
down:  5: 1894, 1922, 1931, 1937, 1974

Notts County [11 moves]
up:    5: Foun, 1897, 1914, 1923, 1981, 1991
down:  6: 1893, 1913, 1920, 1926, 1984, 1992

Preston North End [11 moves]
up:    5: Foun, 1904, 1913, 1915, 1934, 1951
down:  6: 1901, 1912, 1914, 1925, 1949, 1961

Aston Villa [10 moves]
up:    5: Foun, 1938, 1960, 1975, 1988, 2019
down:  5: 1936, 1959, 1967, 1987, 2016

Cardiff City [10 moves]
up:    5: 1921, 1952, 1960, 2013, 2018
down:  5: 1929, 1957, 1962, 2014, 2019

Fulham [10 moves]
up:    5: 1949, 1959, 2001, 2018, 2020
down:  5: 1952, 1968, 2014, 2019, 2021

Queen's Park Rangers [10 moves]
up:    5: 1968, 1973, 1983, 2011, 2014
down:  5: 1969, 1979, 1996, 2013, 2015

Faroe Islands

Since 1947; no proper promotion or relegation until 1975.

07 Vestur (FS Vágar) [15 moves]
up:    8: 1994, 1999, 2002, 2008, 2010, 2012, 2016, 2020
down:  7: 1997, 2001, 2003, 2009, 2011, 2013, 2018

ÍF [15 moves]
up:    8: 1971, 1984, 1987, 1992, 1995, 2003, 2007, 2018
down:  7: 1982, 1985, 1989, 1994, 1999, 2006, 2017

TB [13 moves]
up:    7: 1949, 1989, 1997, 2001, 2004, 2011, 2014
down:  6: 1988, 1996, 1998, 2002, 2005, 2013

B68 [11 moves]
up:    6: 1980, 2005, 2007, 2013, 2015, 2020
down:  5: 2004, 2006, 2012, 2014, 2016

NSÍ [11 moves]
up:    6: 1975, 1978, 1983, 1990, 1993, 1996
down:  5: 1976, 1979, 1988, 1992, 1995

B71 [10 moves]
up:    5: 1988, 1991, 1998, 2006, 2009
down:  5: 1990, 1997, 2001, 2008, 2011

Finland

Since 1930.

VPS Vaasa [19 moves]
up:    9: Foun, 1934, 1937, 1954, 1961, 1964, 1970, 1974, 1994, 2005
down: 10: 1933, 1936, 1953, 1958, 1962, 1968, 1972, 1977, 2002, 2019

FC Oulu (OTP) [16 moves]
up:    8: 1965, 1970, 1972, 1976, 1979, 1984, 1987, 1993
down:  8: 1966, 1971, 1975, 1978, 1980, 1986, 1992, 1994

Ilves (IKissat) Tampere [13 moves]
up:    7: 1948, 1955, 1963, 1968, 1972, 1978, 2014
down:  6: 1951, 1958, 1967, 1971, 1974, 1995
NB: does not include Tampere United, who took the second level place of Ilves
    in 1999 but were dissolved in 2010; in 2014 a "new" Ilves Tampere, which
    originated from the club's youth team in 1998, were promoted to the top
    flight; Ilves was founded in 1975 as a merger of IKissat and TaPa and are
    here considered to be a continuation of IKissat although a club with the
    same name was founded again years after the merger.

KTP Kotka [13 moves]
up:    7: 1947, 1962, 1978, 1998, 2002, 2014, 2020
down:  6: 1958, 1969, 1983, 2000, 2008, 2015

TPS Turku [13 moves]
up:    6: Foun, 1935, 1956, 1965, 2002, 2017, 2019
down:  7: 1934, 1952, 1963, 2000, 2014, 2018, 2020

Jaro (Drott) Pietarsaari [12 moves]
up:    6: 1935, 1944, 1959, 1988, 1990, 2001
down:  6: 1936, 1946, 1960, 1989, 1998, 2015

RoPS Rovaniemi [12 moves]
up:    6: 1980, 1982, 2003, 2007, 2010, 2012
down:  6: 1981, 2001, 2005, 2009, 2011, 2020

KuPS Kuopio [11 moves]
up:    6: 1947, 1948, 1993, 2000, 2004, 2007
down:  5: 1948, 1992, 1994, 2003, 2006

HIFK Helsinki [10 moves]
up:    5: Foun, 1946, 1957, 1969, 2014, 2018
down:  5: 1945, 1949, 1966, 1972, 2017

Koparit (KPT) Kuopio [10 moves]
up:    5: 1937, 1943, 1953, 1971, 1977
down:  5: 1939, 1946, 1954, 1976, 1987

VIFK Vaasa [10 moves]
up:    5: 1934, 1936, 1943, 1957, 1962
down:  5: 1935, 1937, 1956, 1961, 1963

France

Since 1932.

RC Strasbourg [21 moves]
up:   11: 1934, 1953, 1958, 1961, 1972, 1977, 1988, 1992, 2002, 2007, 2017
down: 10: 1952, 1957, 1960, 1971, 1976, 1986, 1989, 2001, 2006, 2008

FC Metz [18 moves]
up:    9: Foun, 1935, 1951, 1961, 1967, 2003, 2007, 2014, 2016, 2019
down:  9: 1933, 1950, 1958, 1962, 2002, 2006, 2008, 2015, 2018

AS/ES Troyes [17 moves]
up:    9: 1954, 1960, 1973, 1999, 2005, 2012, 2015, 2017, 2021
down:  8: 1956, 1961, 1978, 2003, 2007, 2013, 2016, 2018

Stade Rennais [16 moves]
up:    8: Foun, 1945, 1956, 1958, 1976, 1983, 1985, 1990, 1994
down:  8: 1937, 1953, 1957, 1975, 1977, 1984, 1987, 1992

Valenciennes FC [16 moves]
up:    8: 1935, 1937, 1956, 1962, 1972, 1975, 1992, 2006
down:  8: 1936, 1938, 1961, 1971, 1973, 1982, 1993, 2014

RC Lens [15 moves]
up:    8: 1937, 1949, 1973, 1979, 1991, 2009, 2014, 2020
down:  7: 1947, 1968, 1978, 1989, 2008, 2011, 2015

Le Havre AC [14 moves]
up:    7: 1938, 1950, 1959, 1985, 1991, 2002, 2008
down:  7: 1947, 1954, 1962, 1988, 2000, 2003, 2009

Montpellier HSC (SO Montpellier) [14 moves]
up:    7: Foun, 1946, 1952, 1961, 1982, 1987, 2001, 2009
down:  7: 1935, 1950, 1953, 1963, 1983, 2000, 2004

AS Nancy-Lorraine [14 moves] 
up:    7: 1970, 1975, 1990, 1996, 1998, 2005, 2016
down:  7: 1974, 1987, 1992, 1997, 2000, 2013, 2017
NB: no connection with FC Nancy (6 moves 1946-1963)

FC Sochaux-Montbéliard [13 moves]
up:    6: Foun, 1947, 1961, 1964, 1988, 1998, 2001
down:  7: 1946, 1960, 1962, 1987, 1995, 1999, 2014

SM Caen [12 moves]
up:    6: 1988, 1996, 2004, 2007, 2010, 2014
down:  6: 1995, 1997, 2005, 2009, 2012, 2019

Lille OSC (Olympique Lillois) [12 moves]
up:    6: Foun, 1957, 1964, 1971, 1974, 1978, 2000
down:  6: 1956, 1959, 1968, 1972, 1977, 1997

OGC Nice [12 moves]
up:    6: Foun, 1948, 1965, 1970, 1985, 1994, 2002
down:  6: 1934, 1964, 1969, 1982, 1991, 1997

SCO Angers [11 moves]
up:    6: 1956, 1969, 1976, 1978, 1993, 2015
down:  5: 1968, 1975, 1977, 1981, 1995

Red Star [11 moves]
up:    5: Foun, 1934, 1939, 1965, 1967, 1974
down:  6: 1933, 1938, 1948, 1966, 1973, 1975
NB: "promotion" 1967 by merger with (absorption of) Toulouse FC.

Nîmes Olympique [10 moves]
up:    5: 1950, 1968, 1983, 1991, 2018
down:  5: 1967, 1981, 1984, 1993, 2021

NB: the current Toulouse FC (8 moves 1982-2020) has no connection with the
    Toulouse FC absorbed by Red Star in 1967 (3 moves 1946-1967).

Germany (GDR - East Germany)

Since 1949.  From 1991 on united Germany (FRG).

Union Berlin [12 moves]
up:    6: 1950, 1966, 1970, 1976, 1982, 1986
down:  6: 1953, 1969, 1973, 1980, 1984, 1989
NB: moved once more since 1991, see below.

Hansa Rostock [11 moves]
up:    6: 1952, 1957, 1976, 1978, 1980, 1987
down:  5: 1956, 1975, 1977, 1979, 1986
NB: moved 5 more times since 1991, see below.

NB: also considering moves in united Germany, we obtain the following records:

Hansa Rostock [16 moves]
up:    8: 1952, 1957, 1976, 1978, 1980, 1987, 1995, 2007
down:  8: 1956, 1975, 1977, 1979, 1986, 1992, 2005, 2008

Union Berlin [13 moves]
up:    7: 1950, 1966, 1970, 1976, 1982, 1986, 2019
down:  6: 1953, 1969, 1973, 1980, 1984, 1989

Germany (FRG - (West) Germany)

Since 1963.

1.FC Nürnberg [17 moves]
up:    8: Foun, 1978, 1980, 1985, 1998, 2001, 2004, 2009, 2018
down:  9: 1969, 1979, 1984, 1994, 1999, 2003, 2008, 2014, 2019

DSC Arminia Bielefeld [15 moves]
up:    8: 1970, 1978, 1980, 1996, 1999, 2002, 2004, 2020
down:  7: 1972, 1979, 1985, 1998, 2000, 2003, 2009

VfL Bochum [13 moves]
up:    7: 1971, 1994, 1996, 2000, 2002, 2006, 2021
down:  6: 1993, 1995, 1999, 2001, 2005, 2010

Fortuna Düsseldorf [12 moves]
up:    6: 1966, 1971, 1989, 1995, 2012, 2018
down:  6: 1967, 1987, 1992, 1997, 2013, 2020

Hannover 96 [12 moves]
up:    6: 1965, 1975, 1985, 1987, 2002, 2017
down:  6: 1974, 1976, 1986, 1989, 2016, 2019

Hertha BSC [12 moves]
up:    6: Foun, 1968, 1982, 1990, 1997, 2011, 2013
down:  6: 1965, 1980, 1983, 1991, 2010, 2012

1.FC Köln [12 moves]
up:    6: Foun, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2008, 2014, 2019
down:  6: 1998, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2012, 2018

Karlsruher SC [11 moves]
up:    5: Foun, 1975, 1980, 1984, 1987, 2007
down:  6: 1968, 1977, 1983, 1985, 1998, 2009

MSV Duisburg (Meidericher SV) [11 moves]
up:    5: Foun, 1991, 1993, 1996, 2005, 2007
down:  6: 1982, 1992, 1995, 2000, 2006, 2008

FC Sankt Pauli [10 moves]
up:    5: 1977, 1988, 1995, 2001, 2010
down:  5: 1978, 1991, 1997, 2002, 2011

KFC Uerdingen (Bayer Uerdingen) [10 moves]
up:    5: 1975, 1979, 1983, 1992, 1994
down:  5: 1976, 1981, 1991, 1993, 1996

SC Freiburg [9 moves]
up:    5: 1993, 1998, 2003, 2009, 2016
down:  4: 1997, 2002, 2005, 2015

Eintracht Frankfurt [8 moves]
up:    4: Foun, 1998, 2003, 2005, 2012
down:  4: 1997, 2001, 2004, 2011

Offenbacher FC Kickers [8 moves]
up:    4: 1968, 1970, 1972, 1983
down:  4: 1969, 1971, 1976, 1984

NB: also considering moves in East Germany, we additionally obtain:

Hansa Rostock [16 moves]
up:    8: 1952, 1957, 1976, 1978, 1980, 1987, 1995, 2007
down:  8: 1956, 1975, 1977, 1979, 1986, 1992, 2005, 2008

Union Berlin [13 moves]
up:    7: 1950, 1966, 1970, 1976, 1982, 1986, 2019
down:  6: 1953, 1969, 1973, 1980, 1984, 1989

Ghana

Since 1958; no promotion or relegation until 1961.

Mysterious Dwarfs (Cape Coast) [13 moves]
up:    6: Foun, 1985, 1987, 1992, 2004, 2010, 2015
down:  7: 1981, 1986, 1990, 2000, 2005, 2014, 2021

All Blacks (Swedru) [10 moves]
up:    5: 1961, 1969, 1973, 1997, 2005
down:  5: 1963, 1971, 1978, 1999, 2009

Standfast (Accra) [10 moves]
up:    5: 1961, 1966, 1975, 1981, 1986
down:  5: 1963, 1968, 1976, 1983, 1989

Venomonous Vipers (Cape Coast) [9 moves]
up:    4: Foun, 1970, 1983, 1985, 1989
down:  5: 1969, 1972, 1984, 1987, 1990

Greece

Since 1959.

Panahaďki [16 moves]
up:    8: 1969, 1971, 1982, 1984, 1987, 1990, 1995, 1999
down:  8: 1970, 1981, 1983, 1986, 1988, 1994, 1998, 2003

Panserraďkos [16 moves]
up:    8: 1965, 1972, 1980, 1985, 1987, 1989, 2008, 2010
down:  8: 1971, 1979, 1984, 1986, 1988, 1992, 2009, 2011

PAS Giannina [15 moves]
up:    8: 1974, 1985, 1990, 2000, 2002, 2009, 2011, 2020
down:  7: 1984, 1987, 1991, 2001, 2003, 2010, 2018

Apollon [14 moves]
up:    7: Foun, 1970, 1973, 1975, 1988, 2013, 2017, 2020
down:  7: 1969, 1972, 1974, 1987, 2000, 2014, 2019

Veria [14 moves]
up:    7: 1966, 1970, 1977, 1986, 1996, 2007, 2012
down:  7: 1969, 1972, 1978, 1988, 1999, 2008, 2017

Aigaleo [10 moves]
up:    5: 1961, 1965, 1977, 1983, 2001
down:  5: 1964, 1975, 1979, 1985, 2007

Kavala [10 moves]
up:    5: 1969, 1976, 1994, 1996, 2009
down:  5: 1975, 1982, 1995, 2000, 2011

Kerkyra [10 moves]
up:    5: 2004, 2006, 2010, 2014, 2016
down:  5: 2005, 2007, 2013, 2015, 2018

Levadiakos [10 moves]
up:    5: 1987, 1993, 2005, 2007, 2011
down:  5: 1991, 1995, 2006, 2010, 2019

Olympiakos Volos [10 moves]
up:    5: 1967, 1969, 1971, 1988, 2010
down:  5: 1968, 1970, 1975, 1990, 2011

Hongkong

Since 1945.

Hong Kong FC [31 moves]
up:   16: 1947, 1966, 1969, 1973, 1975, 1977, 1979, 1986, 1988, 1993, 1995, 2001, 2006, 2010, 2016, 2021
down: 15: 1958, 1967, 1971, 1974, 1976, 1978, 1981, 1987, 1992, 1994, 1996, 2003, 2007, 2011, 2017

Police [14 moves]
up:    7: 1947, 1975, 1978, 1980, 1986, 1988, 1991
down:  7: 1974, 1976, 1979, 1981, 1987, 1990, 1992

Hungary

Since 1901.

Haladás (Szombathely) [27 moves]
up:   14: 1936, 1939, 1942, 1945, 1962, 1966, 1973, 1981, 1991, 1993, 1995, 2001, 2003,    2008
down: 13: 1937, 1941, 1943, 1960, 1963, 1972, 1979, 1990, 1992, 1994, 2000, 2002, 2004/06, 2019
NB: includes relegation 'within' the two-stage 2000/01 season;
    Haladás merged in summer 2004 with Pápa who took over their top level place,
    the Szombathely team continuing at the 2nd level; Pápa were relegated in 2006,
    while Haladás returned in 2008 

Szeged LC (Szeged SC, SZEOL AK) [22 moves]
up:   11: 1950, 1956, 1959, 1966, 1970, 1972, 1975, 1981, 1983, 1990, 1999
down: 11: 1954, 1958, 1965, 1968, 1971, 1974, 1978, 1982, 1985, 1991, 2000

Diosgyőri VTK (Miskolc) [22 moves]
up:   11: 1940, 1950, 1953, 1957, 1963, 1966, 1974, 1991, 1997, 2004, 2011
down: 11: 1944, 1952, 1955, 1961, 1965, 1973, 1984, 1993, 2000, 2010, 2021

Debreceni VSC [17 moves]
up:    9: 1943, 1949, 1960, 1962, 1979, 1984, 1989, 1993, 2021
down:  8: 1948, 1950, 1961, 1964, 1983, 1988, 1991, 2020

Iceland

Since 1912; no proper promotion or relegation until 1955.

Ţróttur (Reykjavík) [23 moves]
up:   11: 1952, 1958, 1963, 1965, 1975, 1977, 1982, 1997, 2002, 2004, 2007, 2015
down: 12: 1955, 1959, 1964, 1966, 1976, 1980, 1985, 1998, 2003, 2005, 2009, 2016

Víkingur (Reykjavík) [18 moves]
up:    9: 1918, 1969, 1971, 1973, 1987, 1998, 2003, 2005, 2010, 2013
down:  9: 1956, 1970, 1972, 1985, 1993, 1999, 2004, 2007, 2011

Breiđablik (Kópavogur) (UBK) [15 moves]
up:    8: 1970, 1975, 1979, 1985, 1990, 1993, 1998, 2005
down:  7: 1973, 1978, 1984, 1986, 1992, 1996, 2001

Ţor (Akureyri) [14 moves]
up:    7: 1976, 1980, 1982, 1991, 2001, 2010, 2012
down:  7: 1977, 1981, 1990, 1994, 2002, 2011, 2014

Keflavík [13 moves]
up:    7: 1957, 1962, 1981, 1992, 2003, 2017, 2020
down:  6: 1960, 1980, 1989, 2002, 2015, 2018

KA (Akureyri) [11 moves]
up:    6: 1977, 1980, 1983, 1986, 2001, 2016
down:  5: 1979, 1982, 1984, 1992, 2004

ÍBV (Vestmannćyjar) [10 moves]
up:    5: 1967, 1976, 1985, 1989, 2008
down:  5: 1975, 1983, 1986, 2006, 2019

NB: the two Akureyri clubs Ţor and KA were twice promoted together to the top
    level (1980, 2001) but never relegated together out of it; in 1977 and 1982
    they went opposite directions; the two clubs also celebrated simultaneous
    promotion from the third to the second level in 1975; until 1974, the two 
    had combined to form ÍBA (Akureyri), a club which was promoted to the top
    level on 4 occasions (and relegated as often) between 1955 and 1974.

Indonesia

Since 1951; no proper promotion or relegation until 1978.

Persema (Malang) [8 moves]
up:    4: 1983, 1990, 2004, 2009
down:  4: 1985, 2002, 2007, 2010
NB: Persema reached the final rounds of the championship on 9 occasions prior
    to the introduction of a formal second level in 1978; in 2010, they were
    not relegated but left the LSI to join the breakaway LPI for the 2010/11
    season from which they were disqualified in 2013, denying them the chance
    to regain their top flight status.

Persibaya/Persebaya (Surabaya) [8 moves]
up:    4: Foun, 2003, 2006, 2009, 2017
down:  4: 2002, 2005, 2007, 2010
NB: a club named Persebaya were promoted in 2013 but in 2015 they were denied
    the right to that name and transformed into Bhayangkara FC, relocating on
    several occasions and now (2021) playing in Jakarta (of all places).

Persita (Tangerang) [7 moves]
up:    4: 1988, 2000, 2012, 2019
down:  3: 1999, 2009, 2014

PSMS (Medan) [7 moves]
up:    3: 1952, 2003, 2011, 2017
down:  4: 2002, 2009, 2012, 2018
NB: PSMS played in all final rounds of the championship between 1952 (first 
    ever entry) and 1978 (introduction of a formal second level).

Persiraja (Banda Aceh) [6 moves]
up:    3: 1973, 1992, 2006, 2019
down:  3: 1987, 2001, 2007
NB: Persiraja played in all final rounds of the championship between 1973
    (first ever entry) and 1978 (introduction of a formal second level).

PSIM (Yogyakarta) [6 moves]
up:    3: 1992, 1997, 2005
down:  3: 1995, 2000, 2007
NB: PSIM reached the final rounds of the championship on 2 occasions prior to
    the introduction of a formal second level in 1978.

Ireland

Since 1921; no proper promotion or relegation until 1985.

Drogheda United [17 moves]
up:    9: 1963, 1989, 1991, 1995, 1997, 1999, 2002, 2016, 2020
down:  8: 1985, 1990, 1994, 1996, 1998, 2000, 2015, 2017

Bray Wanderers [12 moves]
up:    6: 1986, 1991, 1996, 1998, 2000, 2004
down:  6: 1988, 1993, 1997, 1999, 2003, 2018

University College Dublin [12 moves]
up:    6: 1979, 1989, 1995, 2004, 2009, 2018
down:  6: 1986, 1990, 2003, 2008, 2014, 2019

Finn Harps [11 moves]
up:    6: 1969, 1996, 2004, 2007, 2015, 2018
down:  5: 1985, 2001, 2005, 2008, 2017

Sligo Rovers [11 moves]
up:    6: 1934, 1963, 1986, 1990, 1994, 2005
down:  5: 1962, 1985, 1988, 1993, 2000
NB: Sligo Rovers did not play at the top level from 1940/41 to 1947/48 (due to
    World War II); they were not re-elected in 1962 (along with Transport) but
    returned after one season.

Waterford United (Waterford) [11 moves]
up:    6: 1930, 1990, 1992, 1998, 2003, 2017
down:  5: 1989, 1991, 1993, 2000, 2007
NB: Waterford United did not play at the top level in 1932/33 and 1933/34, and
    from 1941/42 to 1944/45 (due to World War II).

Athlone Town [10 moves]
up:    5: 1922, 1969, 1988, 1994, 2013
down:  5: 1928, 1987, 1992, 1996, 2014

Israel

Since 1949.

Hapoel Kfar-Saba [22 moves]
up:   11: 1952, 1957, 1968, 1978, 1984, 1993, 1995, 2002, 2005, 2015, 2019
down: 11: 1956, 1959, 1977, 1983, 1991, 1994, 2000, 2003, 2008, 2017, 2021

Beitar Tel-Aviv [13 moves]
up:    6: Foun, 1964, 1969, 1981, 1983, 1986, 1994
down:  7: 1961, 1966, 1980, 1982, 1985, 1993, 1996

Hapoel Ramat-Gan [13 moves]
up:    6: Foun, 1963, 1980, 1982, 1989, 2009, 2012
down:  7: 1960, 1969, 1981, 1983, 1990, 2011, 2013

Bnei-Yehuda Tel-Aviv [12 moves]
up:    6: 1959, 1973, 1978, 1985, 2002, 2015
down:  6: 1972, 1976, 1984, 2001, 2014, 2021

Hakoah Maccabi Ramat-Gan [12 moves]
up:    6: 1959, 1962, 1979, 1983, 2006, 2008
down:  6: 1960, 1978, 1980, 1985, 2007, 2009

Maccabi Petah-Tikva [12 moves]
up:    6: Foun, 1969, 1972, 1978, 1991, 2013, 2020
down:  6: 1966, 1971, 1977, 1988, 2012, 2019

Hapoel Jerusalem [10 moves]
up:    5: 1957, 1980, 1985, 1988, 1996
down:  5: 1979, 1983, 1986, 1992, 2000
NB: founded in 1926 and dissolved in 2019 due to financial problems; not
    directly related to the Hapoel Jerusalem club promoted in 2021 but
    founded 2007 as Hapoel Katamon by unhappy fans of the original club.

Hapoel Tsafririm Holon [10 moves]
up:    5: 1970, 1987, 1990, 1998, 2000
down:  5: 1971, 1989, 1997, 1999, 2001

Maccabi Netanya [10 moves]
up:    5: Foun, 1964, 1999, 2005, 2014, 2017
down:  5: 1962, 1995, 2004, 2013, 2016

Beitar Jerusalem [9 moves]
up:    5: 1954, 1959, 1968, 1981, 1992
down:  4: 1955, 1960, 1980, 1991

Hapoel Hadera [9 moves]
up:    5: 1954, 1970, 1973, 1977, 2018
down:  4: 1955, 1972, 1976, 1979

Hapoel Petah-Tikva [9 moves]
up:    4: Foun, 1979, 1984, 2008, 2014
down:  5: 1976, 1982, 1987, 2012, 2015

Hapoel Rishon-LeZion [9 moves]
up:    4: Foun, 1978, 1980, 1994, 2011
down:  5: 1952, 1979, 1982, 2003, 2012

Maccabi Jaffa [8 moves]
up:    4: 1955, 1971, 1995, 1998
down:  4: 1970, 1987, 1996, 1999

Italy

Since 1929.

Atalanta [23 moves]
up:   12: 1937, 1940, 1959, 1971, 1977, 1985, 1988, 1995, 2000, 2004, 2006, 2011
down: 11: 1938, 1958, 1969, 1973, 1979, 1987, 1994, 1998, 2003, 2005, 2010

Brescia [23 moves]
up:   11: Foun, 1933, 1946, 1965, 1969, 1980, 1986, 1992, 1994, 1997, 2000, 2010
down: 12: 1932, 1936, 1947, 1968, 1970, 1981, 1987, 1993, 1995, 1998, 2005, 2011

Bari [22 moves]
up:   11: 1931, 1935, 1942, 1958, 1963, 1969, 1985, 1989, 1994, 1997, 2009
down: 11: 1933, 1941, 1950, 1961, 1964, 1970, 1986, 1992, 1996, 2001, 2011

Hellas Verona [19 moves]
up:   10: 1957, 1968, 1975, 1982, 1991, 1996, 1999, 2013, 2017, 2019
down:  9: 1958, 1974, 1979, 1990, 1992, 1997, 2002, 2016, 2018

Lecce [18 moves]
up:    9: 1985, 1988, 1993, 1997, 1999, 2003, 2008, 2010, 2019
down:  9: 1986, 1991, 1994, 1998, 2002, 2006, 2009, 2012, 2020

(Cittŕ di) Palermo [18 moves]
up:    9: 1932, 1948, 1956, 1959, 1961, 1968, 1972, 2004, 2014
down:  9: 1936, 1954, 1957, 1960, 1963, 1970, 1973, 2013, 2017
NB: formally, Cittŕ di Palermo are a new club founded in 1987 after Palermo had
    been refused a license for the Serie B in 1986.

Genoa 1893 [16 moves]
up:    8: Foun, 1935, 1953, 1962, 1973, 1976, 1981, 1989, 2007
down:  8: 1934, 1951, 1960, 1965, 1974, 1978, 1984, 1995

Empoli [13 moves]
up:    7: 1986, 1997, 2002, 2005, 2014, 2018, 2021
down:  6: 1988, 1999, 2004, 2008, 2017, 2019

Livorno [13 moves]
up:    6: Foun, 1933, 1937, 1940, 2004, 2009, 2013
down:  7: 1931, 1935, 1939, 1949, 2008, 2010, 2014

Venezia [13 moves]
up:    7: 1939, 1949, 1961, 1966, 1998, 2001, 2021
down:  6: 1947, 1950, 1963, 1967, 2000, 2002

Napoli [12 moves]
up:    6: Foun, 1945, 1950, 1962, 1965, 2000, 2007
down:  6: 1942, 1948, 1961, 1963, 1998, 2001

(Delfino) Pescara [12 moves]
up:    6: 1977, 1979, 1987, 1992, 2012, 2015
down:  6: 1978, 1980, 1989, 1993, 2013, 2016

Torino [12 moves]
up:    6: Foun, 1960, 1990, 1999, 2001, 2005, 2012
down:  6: 1959, 1989, 1996, 2000, 2003, 2009

Cagliari [11 moves]
up:    6: 1964, 1979, 1990, 1998, 2004, 2016
down:  5: 1976, 1983, 1997, 2000, 2015

Modena [11 moves]
up:    5: Foun, 1938, 1941, 1943, 1962, 2002
down:  6: 1932, 1940, 1942, 1949, 1964, 2004

Udinese [11 moves]
up:    6: 1950, 1956, 1979, 1989, 1992, 1995
down:  5: 1955, 1962, 1987, 1990, 1994

Ascoli [10 moves]
up:    5: 1974, 1978, 1986, 1991, 2005
down   5: 1976, 1985, 1990, 1992, 2007

Catania [10 moves]
up:    5: 1954, 1960, 1970, 1983, 2006
down:  5: 1955, 1966, 1971, 1984, 2014

Cesena [10 moves]
up:    5: 1973, 1981, 1987, 2010, 2014
down:  5: 1977, 1983, 1991, 2012, 2015

Como [10 moves]
up:    5: 1949, 1975, 1980, 1984, 2002
down:  5: 1953, 1976, 1982, 1989, 2003

Foggia [10 moves]
up:    5: 1964, 1970, 1973, 1976, 1991
down:  5: 1967, 1971, 1974, 1978, 1995

Lazio [10 moves]
up:    5: Foun, 1963, 1969, 1972, 1983, 1988
down:  5: 1961, 1967, 1971, 1980, 1985

Pisa [10 moves]
up:    5: 1968, 1982, 1985, 1987, 1990
down:  5: 1969, 1984, 1986, 1989, 1991

Vicenza [10 moves]
up:    5: 1942, 1955, 1977, 1995, 2000
down:  5: 1948, 1975, 1979, 1999, 2001

Japan

Since 1965; the 1992 moves (marked *) were due to the formation of a new professional
league and were determined by election rather than league position.

Consadole Sapporo (Toshiba) [11 moves]
up:    6: 1989,  1997, 2000, 2007, 2011, 2016
down:  5: 1992*, 1998, 2002, 2008, 2012

Shonan Bellmare (Towa Estate, Fujita, Bellmare Hiratsuka) [11 moves]
up:    6: 1971, 1993, 2009, 2012, 2014, 2017
down:  5: 1990, 1999, 2010, 2013, 2016

Kashiwa Reysol (Hitachi) [10 moves]
up:    5: Foun, 1989, 1991,  1994, 2010, 2019
down:  5: 1987, 1990, 1992*, 2009, 2018

Avispa Fukuoka [9 moves]
up:    5: 1995, 2005, 2010, 2015, 2020
down:  4: 2001, 2006, 2011, 2016

Cerezo Osaka (Yanmar Diesel) [8 moves]
up:    4: Foun, 1994, 2002, 2009, 2016
down:  4: 1991, 2001, 2006, 2014

Jubilo Iwata (Yamaha) [8 moves]
up:    4: 1979, 1982,  1993, 2015
down:  4: 1981, 1992*, 2013, 2019

Kyoto (Purple) Sanga [8 moves]
up:    4: 1995, 2001, 2005, 2007
down:  4: 2000, 2003, 2006, 2010

Nagoya Grampus Eight (Toyota) [7 moves]
up:    4: 1972, 1987, 1990, 2017
down:  3: 1977, 1988, 2016

NKK (Nippon Kokan) [6 moves]
up:    3: 1966, 1981, 1983
down:  3: 1979, 1982, 1991

Ventforet Kofu [6 moves]
up:    3: 2005, 2010, 2012
down:  3: 2007, 2011, 2017

Kosovo

Since 1996.  The first league since separation from Yugoslavia was held in
1991/92, but the top level was then split into four regional groups until
1995/96.  In 1997/98 and 1998/99 no league was held due to war.

Ferizaj [12 moves]
up:    6: 1999, 2002, 2008, 2013, 2016, 2018
down:  6: 2001, 2007, 2011, 2015, 2017, 2020

Liria Prizren [7 moves]
up:    3: Foun, 2004, 2009, 2015
down:  4: 2003, 2007, 2013, 2019

Vëllaznimi Gjakovë [7 moves]
up:    3: Foun, 2002, 2014, 2017
down:  4: 2001, 2013, 2015, 2018

Vushtrria (Kosova Vushtrri) [7 moves]
up:    3: Foun, 2006, 2012, 2019
down:  4: 2004, 2010, 2016, 2020

Dukagjini Klinë [6 moves]
up:    3: Foun, 2001, 2019, 2021
down:  3: 1997, 2003, 2020

Gjilani (Gjilani 95) [6 moves]
up:    3: Foun, 2005, 2011, 2015
down:  3: 2004, 2010, 2012

KEK-u Kastrioti [6 moves]
up:    3: 2003, 2009, 2018
down:  3: 2008, 2012, 2019

Drita Gjilan [5 moves]
up:    3: 1999, 2007, 2011
down:  2: 2005, 2009

NB: none of the above clubs ever played at the highest level in Yugoslavia.

Luxembourg

Since 1910.

US Rumelange [26 moves]
up:   13: 1920, 1949, 1960, 1964, 1982, 1987, 1996, 1999, 2005, 2008, 2011, 2013, 2018
down: 13: 1921, 1950, 1962, 1980, 1985, 1988, 1998, 2004, 2006, 2010, 2012, 2017, 2019
NB: also entered 1909/10 season.

CS Pétange [22 moves]
up:   11: 1913, 1917, 1945, 1948, 1965, 1986, 1988, 1993, 1997, 2004, 2009
down: 11: 1914, 1918, 1947, 1949, 1968, 1987, 1989, 1996, 1999, 2008, 2013
NB: CS Pétange merged 2015 with FC Titus Lamadelaine into Union Titus Pétange,
    who were promoted 2016 and not relegated since.

Stade Dudelange [22 moves]
up:   11: 1915, 1919, 1927, 1930, 1932, 1936, 1969, 1973, 1975, 1979, 1982
down: 11: 1916, 1926, 1929, 1931, 1933, 1968, 1971, 1974, 1978, 1981, 1986

Fola Esch [19 moves]
up:   10: 1915, 1935, 1945, 1951, 1959, 1968, 1972, 1989, 1992, 2008
down:  9: 1934, 1939, 1950, 1958, 1963, 1969, 1976, 1991, 1994

FC Rodange (Chiers) [19 moves]
up:   10: 1938, 1950, 1955, 1957, 1960, 1975, 1995, 2000, 2017, 2019
down:  9: 1947, 1951, 1956, 1959, 1961, 1980, 1997, 2001, 2018

F'91 Dudelange (Alliance) [17 moves]
up:    9: 1952, 1954, 1961, 1970, 1974, 1980, 1984, 1989, 1992
down:  8: 1953, 1960, 1966, 1972, 1979, 1983, 1988, 1990
NB: after the merger of Stade, Alliance, and US Dudelange, F'91 Dudelange took over 
    Alliance's place in the second division.

Progres Niedercorn [17 moves]
up:    9: 1926, 1928, 1936, 1963, 1967, 1974, 1990, 2001, 2006
down:  8: 1927, 1935, 1960, 1964, 1972, 1989, 1991, 2003

Aris Bonnevoie [16 moves]
up:    8: 1926, 1931, 1934, 1959, 1978, 1987, 1989, 1998
down:  8: 1927, 1932, 1937, 1977, 1986, 1988, 1997, 2000

FC Wiltz '71 [15 moves]
up:    8: 1981, 1986, 1991, 1994, 2002, 2010, 2012, 2020
down:  7: 1985, 1987, 1992, 2001, 2008, 2011, 2016

US Dudelange [14 moves]
up:    7: 1924, 1929, 1931, 1933, 1953, 1957, 1961
down:  7: 1925, 1930, 1932, 1951, 1954, 1958, 1970

CS Grevenmacher [14 moves]
up:    7: 1949, 1953, 1956, 1968, 1970, 1976, 1985
down:  7: 1950, 1955, 1962, 1969, 1971, 1984, 2016

Etzella Ettelbruck [13 moves]
up:    7: 1971, 1983, 1992, 2000, 2003, 2012, 2018
down:  6: 1981, 1984, 1993, 2002, 2011, 2016

The National Schifflange [12 moves]
up:    6: 1921, 1930, 1935, 1937, 1958, 1971
down:  6: 1922, 1934, 1936, 1957, 1965, 1974
NB: merged 1995 with AS Schifflange into FC Schifflange '95, who were once promoted to
    top level (in 1999) and relegated after one season.

Malta

Since 1909; no proper promotion or relegation until 1946.

Birkirkara United (now Birkirkara) [21 moves]
up:   11: 1949, 1952, 1961, 1965, 1968, 1971, 1977, 1983, 1985, 1987, 1990
down: 10: 1950, 1960, 1963, 1966, 1969, 1976, 1981, 1984, 1986, 1989
     
Saint Georges [19 moves]
up:    9: 1945, 1954, 1957, 1959, 1966, 1972, 1974, 1992, 1994, 2006
down: 10: 1953, 1955, 1958, 1964, 1969, 1973, 1980, 1993, 1995, 2007

Rabat Ajax [16 moves]
up:    8: 1951, 1962, 1982, 1988, 1990, 1995, 1998, 2012
down:  8: 1959, 1965, 1987, 1989, 1994, 1997, 2001, 2014

Marsa [14 moves]
up:    7: 1956, 1958, 1970, 1977, 1984, 2001, 2006
down:  7: 1957, 1961, 1976, 1981, 1985, 2003, 2007

Saint Patrick [14 moves]
up:    7: 1950, 1960, 1972, 1983, 1995, 1998, 2004
down:  7: 1952, 1962, 1973, 1984, 1996, 1999, 2005

Hamrun Spartans [13 moves]
up:    7: 1946, 1971, 1976, 2000, 2005, 2007, 2016
down:  6: 1970, 1974, 1999, 2004, 2006, 2013

Qormi [12 moves]
up:    6: 1967, 1969, 1973, 1978, 2008, 2018
down:  6: 1968, 1972, 1974, 1980, 2016, 2019

Zebbug Rangers [12 moves]
up:    6: 1970, 1973, 1979, 1982, 1989, 2014
down:  6: 1972, 1977, 1980, 1983, 1990, 2015

Lija Athletic [10 moves]
up:    5: 1996, 2001, 2004, 2017, 2020
down:  5: 1997, 2002, 2005, 2018, 2021

Naxxar Lions [10 moves]
up:    5: 1946, 1988, 1994, 2013, 2017
down:  5: 1949, 1991, 2002, 2016, 2018

Mexico

Since 1943.

Zacatepec [10 moves]
up:    5: 1951, 1963, 1970, 1978, 1984
down:  5: 1962, 1966, 1977, 1983, 1985

Montenegro

Since 2006.

Jedinstvo Bijelo Polje [7 moves]
up:    3: Foun, 2008, 2012, 2016
down:  4: 2007, 2009, 2013, 2017

Berane [7 moves]
up:    3: Foun, 2009, 2011, 2014
down:  4: 2007, 2010, 2012, 2015

Mornar Bar [7 moves]
up:    4: 2009, 2012, 2018, 2021
down:  3: 2011, 2016, 2019

Bokelj Kotor [6 moves]
up:    3: 2007, 2011, 2014
down:  3: 2008, 2012, 2017

Decic Tuzi [6 moves]
up:    3: Foun, 2013, 2015, 2020
down:  3: 2012, 2014, 2018

Kom Podgorica [5 moves]
up:    2: Foun, 2017, 2019
down:  3: 2010, 2018, 2020

NB: also considering moves in Yugoslavia and Serbia-Montenegro, we obtain
    the following records: 

Sutjeska Niksic [13 moves]
up:    7: 1964, 1966, 1971, 1984, 1991, 1999, 2006
down:  6: 1965, 1967, 1973, 1988, 1995, 2005

Buducnost Titograd [10 moves]
up:    5: Foun, 1948, 1955, 1962, 1975, 2004
down:  5: 1947, 1950, 1960, 1963, 2001

Berane [8 moves]
up:    4: 2006, 2009, 2011, 2014
down:  4: 2007, 2010, 2012, 2015

Jedinstvo Bijelo Polje [8 moves]
up:    4: 2005, 2008, 2012, 2016
down:  4: 2007, 2009, 2013, 2017

Kom Podgorica [8 moves]
up:    4: 2003, 2006, 2017, 2019
down:  4: 2004, 2010, 2018, 2020

Mogren Budva [8 moves]
up:    4: 1992, 1998, 2002, 2006
down:  4: 1994, 2000, 2003, 2015

Morocco

Since 1956.

MA Tétouan [17 moves]
up:    8: Foun, 1960, 1965, 1970, 1974, 1979, 1990, 1995, 2005
down:  9: 1957, 1963, 1966, 1971, 1977, 1981, 1991, 1997, 2021

Raja Béni Mellal [14 moves]
up:    7: 1966, 1969, 1977, 1991, 1998, 2012, 2019
down:  7: 1968, 1976, 1981, 1993, 2002, 2013, 2020

KAC Marrakech [13 moves]
up:    6: Foun, 1970, 1973, 1978, 1985, 2006, 2013
down:  7: 1968, 1972, 1976, 1980, 2005, 2011, 2019

AS Salé [12 moves]
up:    6: 1969, 1973, 1984, 2003, 2008, 2013
down:  6: 1970, 1982, 1987, 2007, 2010, 2014

COD Meknčs [12 moves]
up:    6: 1964, 1968, 1975, 1988, 1994, 2011
down:  6: 1966, 1969, 1987, 1989, 2008, 2013

SCC Mohammédia [11 moves]
up:    6: 1961, 1985, 1993, 2002, 2008, 2020
down:  5: 1984, 1988, 2001, 2006, 2009

EJS Casablanca [10 moves]
up:    5: 1958, 1963, 1968, 1971, 1976
down:  5: 1962, 1964, 1970, 1972, 1979

US Sidi Kacem [10 moves]
up:    5: 1967, 1978, 1983, 1993, 1995
down:  5: 1977, 1982, 1991, 1994, 1997

IR Tanger [9 moves]
up:    5: 1962, 1987, 1997, 2001, 2015
down:  4: 1963, 1996, 1998, 2007

Kénitra AC [9 moves]
up:    4: Foun, 1966, 1976, 2002, 2007
down:  5: 1965, 1974, 1995, 2004, 2017

TAS Casablanca [9 moves]
up:    4: Foun, 1960, 1964, 1972, 1990
down:  5: 1959, 1962, 1971, 1978, 1992

DH Jadidi [8 moves]
up:    4: Foun, 1966, 1988, 1994, 2005
down:  4: 1960, 1987, 1993, 1999

FUS Rabat [8 moves]
up:    4: Foun, 1962, 1998, 2007, 2009
down:  4: 1961, 1995, 2003, 2008

IZ Khémisset [8 moves]
up:    4: 1972, 2000, 2011, 2014
down:  4: 1974, 2010, 2012, 2015

MC Oujda [8 moves]
up:    4: Foun, 1992, 2003, 2015, 2018
down:  4: 1988, 1999, 2009, 2016

RS Settat [8 moves]
up:    4: 1965, 1980, 1989, 1999
down:  4: 1979, 1988, 1998, 2004

Union Touarga Sport [8 moves]
up:    4: 1980, 1982, 1986, 2004
down:  4: 1981, 1983, 1987, 2006

Netherlands

Since 1956.

De Graafschap [18 moves]
up:    9: 1973, 1981, 1991, 1995, 2004, 2007, 2010, 2015, 2018
down:  9: 1977, 1982, 1992, 2003, 2005, 2009, 2012, 2016, 2019

FC Volendam [18 moves]
up:    9: 1959, 1961, 1967, 1970, 1977, 1983, 1987, 2003, 2008
down:  9: 1960, 1964, 1969, 1972, 1979, 1985, 1998, 2004, 2009
 
Excelsior [16 moves]
up:    8: 1970, 1974, 1979, 1982, 2002, 2006, 2010, 2014
down:  8: 1973, 1976, 1981, 1987, 2003, 2008, 2012, 2019

VVV-Venlo (VVV, FC VVV) [15 moves]
up:    7: Foun, 1976, 1985, 1991, 1993, 2007, 2009, 2017
down:  8: 1962, 1979, 1989, 1992, 1994, 2008, 2013, 2021

FC Den Bosch (BVV) [13 moves]
up:    6: Foun, 1971, 1983, 1992, 1999, 2001, 2004
down:  7: 1958, 1973, 1990, 1993, 2000, 2002, 2005

NEC [13 moves]
up:    7: 1967, 1975, 1985, 1989, 1994, 2015, 2021
down:  6: 1974, 1983, 1986, 1991, 2014, 2017

Willem II [12 moves]
up:    6: Foun, 1958, 1965, 1979, 1987, 2012, 2014
down:  6: 1957, 1963, 1967, 1984, 2011, 2013

NAC Breda (NAC) [11 moves]
up:    5: Foun, 1966, 1984, 1993, 2000, 2017
down:  6: 1965, 1983, 1985, 1999, 2015, 2019

ADO Den Haag (ADO, FC Den Haag) [10 moves]
up:    5: 1957, 1986, 1989, 2003, 2008
down:  5: 1982, 1988, 1992, 2007, 2021

FC Dordrecht (DFC, DS '79, Dordrecht '90) [10 moves]
up:    5: 1983, 1987, 1991, 1994, 2014
down:  5: 1984, 1988, 1993, 1995, 2015
NB: "promotion" 1991 by merger with SVV.

AZ (Alkmaar, AZ '67) [9 moves]
up:    5: 1960, 1968, 1972, 1996, 1998
down:  4: 1961, 1971, 1988, 1997

Go Ahead (Eagles) [9 moves]
up:    5: 1963, 1992, 2013, 2016, 2021
down:  4: 1987, 1996, 2015, 2017

MVV [9 moves]
up:    4: Foun, 1978, 1984, 1988, 1997
down:  5: 1976, 1982, 1986, 1995, 2000

FC Groningen (GVAV) [8 moves]
up:    4: Foun, 1960, 1971, 1980, 2000
down:  4: 1958, 1970, 1974, 1998
     
Haarlem [8 moves]
up:    4: 1969, 1972, 1976, 1981
down:  4: 1971, 1975, 1980, 1990

NB: if we consider the regional first classes since 1888, the record is held by Excelsior:

Excelsior [24 moves]
up:   12: 1923, 1933, 1946, 1952, 1970, 1974, 1979, 1982, 2002, 2006, 2010, 2014
down: 12: 1931, 1938, 1948, 1956, 1973, 1976, 1981, 1987, 2003, 2008, 2012, 2019

De Graafschap [18 moves]
up:    9: 1973, 1981, 1991, 1995, 2004, 2007, 2010, 2015, 2018
down:  9: 1977, 1982, 1992, 2003, 2005, 2009, 2012, 2016, 2019

FC Volendam [18 moves]
up:    9: 1959, 1961, 1967, 1970, 1977, 1983, 1987, 2003, 2008
down:  9: 1960, 1964, 1969, 1972, 1979, 1985, 1998, 2004, 2009
 
VVV-Venlo (VVV, FC VVV) [17 moves]
up:    8: Foun, 1945, 1976, 1985, 1991, 1993, 2007, 2009, 2017
down:  9: 1922, 1962, 1979, 1989, 1992, 1994, 2008, 2013, 2021
NB: foundation southern first class in 1913

NEC [15 moves]
up:    8: 1936, 1967, 1975, 1985, 1989, 1994, 2015, 2021
down:  7: 1955, 1974, 1983, 1986, 1991, 2014, 2017

FC Den Bosch (BVV) [14 moves]
up:    7: 1920, 1971, 1983, 1992, 1999, 2001, 2004
down:  7: 1958, 1973, 1990, 1993, 2000, 2002, 2005

Haarlem [14 moves]
up:    7: 1897, 1929, 1932, 1969, 1972, 1976, 1981
down:  7: 1926, 1930, 1955, 1971, 1975, 1980, 1990

Willem II [14 moves]
up:    7: Foun, 1937, 1958, 1965, 1979, 1987, 2012, 2014
down:  7: 1935, 1957, 1963, 1967, 1984, 2011, 2013
NB: foundation southern first class in 1913

Go Ahead Eagles (Go Ahead) [13 moves]
up:    7: 1911, 1942, 1963, 1992, 2013, 2016, 2021
down:  6: 1941, 1955, 1987, 1996, 2015, 2017

ADO Den Haag (ADO, FC Den Haag) [12 moves]
up:    6: 1927, 1957, 1986, 1989, 2003, 2008
down:  6: 1956, 1982, 1988, 1992, 2007, 2021

FC Dordrecht (DFC, DS '79, Dordrecht '90) [12 moves]
up:    6: 1904, 1983, 1987, 1991, 1994, 2014
down:  6: 1949, 1984, 1988, 1993, 1995, 2015
NB: "promotion" 1991 by merger with SVV.

NAC Breda (NAC) [12 moves]
up:    6: 1915, 1966, 1984, 1993, 2000, 2017
down:  6: 1965, 1983, 1985, 1999, 2015, 2019

Vitesse [12 moves]
up:    6: Foun, 1923, 1946, 1950, 1971, 1977, 1989
down:  6: 1922, 1935, 1948, 1956, 1972, 1980
NB: foundation eastern first class in 1896

PEC Zwolle (PEC) [11 moves]
up:    6: 1929, 1941, 1978, 1986, 2002, 2012
down:  5: 1938, 1946, 1985, 1989, 2004

Sparta Rotterdam (Sparta) [11 moves]
up:    6: 1893, 1902, 1922, 2005, 2016, 2019
down:  5: 1901, 1921, 2002, 2010, 2018

(North) Macedonia

Since 1992.

Makedonija Skopje [10 moves]
up:    5: Foun, 1995, 2005, 2013, 2016, 2018
down:  5: 1994, 2002, 2010, 2014, 2017
NB: after withdrawing from the top level during the 2009/10 season, Makedonija took
    over Treska Sisevo to enter the third level in 2010/11.

Bregalnica Stip [8 moves]
up:    4: Foun, 1996, 2004, 2010, 2021
down:  4: 1993, 1998, 2007, 2017

Napredok Kicevo [8 moves]
up:    4: 1999, 2001, 2006, 2010
down:  4: 2000, 2005, 2009, 2014

Pelister Bitola [8 moves]
up:    4: Foun, 2006, 2012, 2016, 2020
down:  4: 2003, 2011, 2015, 2018

Belasica Strumica [7 moves]
up:    3: Foun, 2000, 2018, 2020
down:  4: 1998, 2006, 2019, 2021

Skhendia Tetovo [7 moves]
up:    4: 1996, 2000, 2004, 2010
down:  3: 1997, 2001, 2008

Skopje [7 moves]
up:    4: 1997, 2010, 2017, 2021
down:  3: 1999, 2011, 2018

NB: also considering moves in Yugoslavia, we obtain the following records: 

Vardar Skopje [15 moves]    
up:    7: Foun, 1952, 1956, 1960, 1963, 1971, 1979, 1991
down:  8: 1948, 1955, 1959, 1962, 1970, 1976, 1990, 2011, 2021
NB: Vardar Skopje were relegated in 2011 but remained at the first level after a
    "merger" with promoted side Miravci.

Makedonija Skopje [11 moves]
up:    6: 1992, 1995, 2005, 2013, 2016, 2018
down:  5: 1994, 2002, 2010, 2014, 2017
NB: after withdrawing from the top level during the 2009/10 season, Makedonija took
    over Treska Sisevo to enter the third level in 2010/11.

Northern Cyprus

Since 1955.

Gençlik Gücü [19 moves]
up:    9: Foun, 1970, 1986, 1989, 1991, 2000, 2006, 2009, 2012, 2016
down: 10: 1969, 1985, 1988, 1990, 1998, 2005, 2007, 2010, 2014, 2020

Yalova [18 moves]
up:    9: 1957, 1971, 1973, 1977, 1980, 1987, 1993, 2013, 2016
down:  9: 1959, 1972, 1976, 1978, 1981, 1992, 2002, 2014, 2018

Baf Ülkü Yurdu [16 moves]
up:    8: Foun, 1961, 1981, 1985, 1997, 1999, 2001, 2004, 2016
down:  8: 1957, 1980, 1984, 1995, 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005

Gençler Birligi (Demir Spor) [15 moves]
up:    7: Foun, 1975, 1981, 1992, 1999, 2003, 2007, 2014
down:  8: 1973, 1976, 1988, 1998, 2001, 2005, 2008, 2019

Lefke [13 moves]
up:    7: 1962, 1972, 1982, 1988, 1990, 1995, 2010
down:  6: 1971, 1977, 1983, 1989, 1992, 2003

Yeni Bogaziçi [12 moves]
up:    6: 1995, 1998, 2000, 2004, 2013, 2017
down:  6: 1996, 1999, 2002, 2009, 2016, 2018

Binatli [11 moves]
up:    6: 1976, 1984, 1996, 2000, 2008, 2015
down:  5: 1979, 1994, 1999, 2007, 2009

Dumlupinar [11 moves]
up:    6: 1977, 1979, 1990, 1994, 2016, 2020
down:  5: 1978, 1987, 1991, 2000, 2017

Northern Ireland

Since 1890; for a long time, there was no institutionalised relegation.

Ards [8 moves]
up:    4: 1923, 2001, 2013, 2016
down:  4: 1998, 2006, 2014, 2019

Institute [8 moves]
up:    4: 2002, 2007, 2014, 2018
down:  4: 2006, 2010, 2015, 2020

Carrick Rangers [7 moves]
up:    4: 1983, 2011, 2015, 2019
down:  3: 1995, 2012, 2018

Newry Town/City [7 moves]
up:    4: 1923, 1983, 1998, 2018
down:  3: WWII, 1995, 2011, 2019

Larne [6 moves]
up:    4: 1923, 1972, 2003, 2019
down:  2: WWII, 1995, 2008

Omagh Town [6 moves]
up:    3: 1990, 1997, 2000
down:  3: 1995, 1999, 2005

Ballymena (United) [5 moves]
up:    3: 1928, 1997, 2003
down:  2: 1995, 2001

(Lisburn) Distillery [5 moves]
up:    2: Foun, 1999, 2002
down:  3: 1995, 2000, 2013

Portadown [5 moves]
up:    3: 1924, 2009, 2020
down:  2: 2008, 2017

NB: Larne and Newry Town did not reappear in the league after World War II but were
      not relegated at the end of the 1939/40 season.

Norway

Since 1962.

IK Start [20 moves]
up:   10: 1968, 1972, 1988, 1999, 2001, 2004, 2008, 2012, 2017, 2019
down: 10: 1969, 1987, 1996, 2000, 2002, 2007, 2011, 2016, 2018, 2020

Hamarkameratene [16 moves]
up:    8: 1969, 1975, 1978, 1980, 1985, 1991, 2003, 2007
down:  8: 1974, 1977, 1979, 1983, 1987, 1995, 2006, 2008

Sogndal IL [16 moves]
up:    8: 1981, 1987, 1990, 1993, 1996, 2000, 2010, 2015
down:  8: 1982, 1989, 1992, 1994, 1998, 2004, 2014, 2017

FC Lyn Oslo (SFK Lyn) [13 moves]
up:    6: Foun, 1970, 1977, 1979, 1990, 1996, 2000
down:  7: 1969, 1973, 1978, 1981, 1993, 1997, 2009

Mjřndalen IF [13 moves]
up:    7: 1971, 1978, 1981, 1984, 1991, 2014, 2018
down:  6: 1977, 1979, 1983, 1987, 1992, 2015

SK Brann [12 moves]
up:    6: Foun, 1967, 1980, 1982, 1984, 1986, 2015
down:  6: 1964, 1979, 1981, 1983, 1985, 2014

Fredrikstad FK [11 moves]
up:    5: Foun, 1974, 1979, 1983, 2003, 2010
down:  6: 1973, 1976, 1982, 1984, 2009, 2012

Molde FK [11 moves]
up:    6: 1973, 1979, 1981, 1983, 1994, 2007
down:  5: 1978, 1980, 1982, 1993, 2006

Strřmsgodset IF [11 moves]
up:    6: 1966, 1989, 1993, 1995, 2000, 2006
down:  5: 1976, 1991, 1994, 1999, 2001

Vålerenga F (Vålerengen IF, VIF Fotball) [10 moves]
up:    5: Foun, 1973, 1976, 1993, 1997, 2001
down:  5: 1968, 1975, 1990, 1996, 2000 

Poland

Since 1927.

Cracovia [17 moves]
up:    9: 1927, 1936, 1957, 1960, 1966, 1969, 1982, 2004, 2013
down:  8: 1935, 1954, 1959, 1962, 1967, 1970, 1984, 2012

Pogon Szczecin [15 moves]
up:    8: 1958, 1962, 1966, 1981, 1992, 1997, 2004, 2012
down:  7: 1960, 1965, 1979, 1989, 1996, 2003, 2007

Gwardia Warszawa [12 moves]
up:    6: 1952, 1961, 1967, 1969, 1978, 1981
down:  6: 1960, 1966, 1968, 1975, 1979, 1983

LKS Lódz [12 moves]
up:    6: 1947, 1953, 1971, 2006, 2011, 2019
down:  6: 1952, 1968, 2000, 2009, 2012, 2020

Odra Opole [12 moves]
up:    6: 1952, 1955, 1959, 1967, 1971, 1976
down:  6: 1953, 1958, 1966, 1970, 1974, 1981

Polonia Bytom [12 moves] 
up:    6: 1947, 1950, 1956, 1977, 1986, 2007
down:  6: 1949, 1955, 1976, 1980, 1987, 2011

Zawisza Bydgoszcz [12 moves]
up:    6: 1960, 1964, 1977, 1979, 1989, 2013
down:  6: 1961, 1967, 1978, 1981, 1994, 2015

Arka Gdynia [10 moves]
up:    5: 1974, 1976, 2005, 2008, 2016
down:  5: 1975, 1982, 2007, 2011, 2020

Szombierki Bytom [10 moves]
up:    5: 1948, 1963, 1973, 1987, 1992
down:  5: 1950, 1972, 1984, 1989, 1993

Widzew Lódz [10 moves]
up:    5: 1947, 1975, 1991, 2006, 2010
down:  5: 1948, 1990, 2004, 2008, 2014

Zaglebie Sosnowiec [10 moves]
up:    5: 1954, 1959, 1989, 2007, 2018
down:  5: 1958, 1986, 1992, 2008, 2019

Portugal

Since 1938; no proper promotion or relegation until 1948.

Beira-Mar [20 moves]
up:   10: 1961, 1965, 1971, 1975, 1978, 1988, 1998, 2000, 2006, 2010
down: 10: 1962, 1967, 1974, 1977, 1980, 1995, 1999, 2005, 2007, 2013

Vitória FC (Setúbal) [15 moves]
up:    7: 1943, 1952, 1962, 1987, 1993, 1996, 2001, 2004
down:  8: 1951, 1960, 1986, 1991, 1995, 2000, 2003, 2020

Barreirense [14 moves]
up:    7: 1951, 1960, 1962, 1965, 1967, 1969, 1978
down:  7: 1959, 1961, 1964, 1966, 1968, 1974, 1979

Académica Coimbra [13 moves]
up:    6: Foun, 1949, 1973, 1980, 1984, 1997, 2002
down:  7: 1948, 1972, 1979, 1981, 1988, 1999, 2016

Espinho [12 moves]
up:    6: 1974, 1977, 1979, 1987, 1992, 1996
down:  6: 1975, 1978, 1984, 1989, 1993, 1997

Estoril-Praia [12 moves]
up:    6: 1946, 1975, 1980, 1991, 2004, 2012, 2021
down:  6: 1953, 1979, 1984, 1994, 2005, 2018

Rio Ave [12 moves]
up:    6: 1979, 1981, 1986, 1996, 2003, 2008
down:  6: 1980, 1985, 1988, 2000, 2006, 2021

Varzim [12 moves]
up:    6: 1963, 1976, 1982, 1986, 1997, 2001
down:  6: 1971, 1981, 1985, 1988, 1998, 2003

Atlético CP [11 moves]
up:    5: 1945, 1959, 1966, 1968, 1971, 1974
down:  6: 1957, 1963, 1967, 1969, 1973, 1977

Farense [10 moves]
up:    5: 1970, 1983, 1986, 1990, 2020
down:  5: 1976, 1985, 1989, 2002, 2021

Feirense [10 moves]
up:    5: 1962, 1977, 1989, 2011, 2016
down:  5: 1963, 1978, 1990, 2012, 2019

Penafiel [10 moves]
up:    5: 1980, 1983, 1987, 2004, 2014
down:  5: 1982, 1986, 1992, 2006, 2015

Salgueiros [10 moves]
up:    5: 1951, 1957, 1960, 1982, 1990
down:  5: 1952, 1958, 1962, 1988, 2002

Tirsense [10 moves]
up:    5: 1967, 1970, 1989, 1992, 1994
down:  5: 1968, 1972, 1991, 1993, 1996

União Leiria [10 moves]
up:    5: 1979, 1981, 1994, 1998, 2009
down:  5: 1980, 1982, 1997, 2008, 2012

Romania

Since 1934.

Politehnica Timisoara (CSU, Stiinta) [18 moves]
up:    9: 1948, 1952, 1960, 1965, 1973, 1984, 1987, 1989, 1995
down:  9: 1951, 1959, 1964, 1967, 1983, 1986, 1988, 1994, 1997
NB: not related to current side ACS Poli Timisoara (formerly ACS Recas) or to
    Poli AEK Timisoara, who earned promotion 2002 as AEK Bucuresti and were
    then relocated.

Petrolul Ploiesti (Juventus Bucuresti etc.) [17 moves]
up:    8: Foun, 1946, 1953, 1977, 1982, 1985, 1989, 2003, 2011
down:  9: 1940, 1952, 1974, 1978, 1984, 1988, 2002, 2004, 2016

Universitatea Cluj (Stiinta) [17 moves]
up:    8: Foun, 1940, 1950, 1958, 1979, 1985, 1992, 2007, 2010
down:  9: 1938, 1949, 1956, 1976, 1982, 1991, 1999, 2008, 2015

Jiul Petrosani [16 moves]
up:    8: 1937, 1946, 1961, 1966, 1986, 1989, 1996, 2005
down:  8: 1938, 1960, 1962, 1985, 1987, 1991, 1998, 2007

Bihor Oradea [14 moves]
up:    7: 1963, 1968, 1971, 1975, 1982, 1988, 2003
down:  7: 1966, 1970, 1972, 1979, 1986, 1991, 2004

Politehnica Iasi (Poli Unirea) [14 moves]
up:    7: 1960, 1962, 1968, 1973, 1982, 1995, 2004
down:  7: 1961, 1967, 1972, 1981, 1985, 1996, 2010
NB: not related to current side CSMS Iasi (a merger of Tricolorul Breaza and
    Navobi Iasi; 4 moves between 2012 and 2021).

Rapid Bucuresti (CFR, Locomotiva) [14 moves]
up:    7: Foun, 1952, 1955, 1975, 1983, 1990, 2014, 2021
down:  7: 1951, 1954, 1974, 1977, 1989, 2013, 2015

FCM Brasov (Steagul rosu) [12 moves]
up:    6: 1956, 1969, 1980, 1984, 1999, 2008
down:  6: 1968, 1975, 1983, 1997, 2005, 2015

UTA Arad (IT Arad, Flamura rosie) [11 moves]
up:    6: 1946, 1981, 1993, 2002, 2006, 2020
down:  5: 1979, 1982, 1995, 2003, 2008
NB: UT Arad was dissolved in 2014; the current team with this name was
    founded 2013 and is officially considered its successor.

Farul Constanta (FC Constanta) [10 moves]
up:    5: 1958, 1962, 1981, 1988, 2001, 2021
down:  5: 1961, 1978, 1983, 2000, 2009
NB: in 2021 Farul absorbed top level side Viitorul Constanta to return
    to the top level.

Russia

Since 1992.

Kuban Krasnodar [9 moves]
up:    4: Foun, 2003, 2006, 2008, 2010
down:  5: 1992, 2004, 2007, 2009, 2016

Shinnik Yaroslavl [7 moves]
up:    3: Foun, 1996, 2001, 2007
down:  4: 1992, 1999, 2006, 2008

Anzhi Makhachkala [6 moves]
up:    3: 1999, 2009, 2015
down:  3: 2002, 2014, 2019

Krylya Sovetov Samara [6 moves]
up:    3: Foun, 2015, 2018, 2021
down:  3: 2014, 2017, 2020

Tom Tomsk [6 moves]
up:    3: 2004, 2013, 2016
down:  3: 2012, 2014, 2017

Alania Vladikavkaz (Spartak) [5 moves]
up:    2: Foun, 2009, 2012
down:  3: 2005, 2010, 2013

Fakel Voronezh [5 moves]
up:    2: Foun, 1996, 1999
down:  3: 1992, 1997, 2001

FK Tyumen (Dinamo-Gazovik Tyumen) [5 moves]
up:    2: Foun, 1993, 1996
down:  3: 1992, 1995, 1998

NB: also considering moves in the Soviet Union, we obtain the following records:

Krylya Sovetov Samara [17 moves]
up:    9: 1945, 1956, 1961, 1975, 1978, 1991, 2015, 2018, 2021
down:  8: 1955, 1960, 1969, 1977, 1979, 2014, 2017, 2020

Lokomotiv Moskva [13 moves]
up:    7: Foun, 1947, 1951, 1964, 1971, 1974, 1987, 1990
down:  6: 1945, 1950, 1963, 1969, 1972, 1980, 1989

Kuban Krasnodar [12 moves]
up:    6: 1979, 1991, 2003, 2006, 2008, 2010
down:  6: 1982, 1992, 2004, 2007, 2009, 2016

Fakel Voronezh [10 moves]
up:    5: 1960, 1984, 1991, 1996, 1999
down:  5: 1961, 1985, 1992, 1997, 2001

Shinnik Yaroslavl [10 moves]
up:    5: 1963, 1991, 1996, 2001, 2007
down:  5: 1964, 1992, 1999, 2006, 2008

Scotland

Since 1890.

Dunfermline Athletic [20 moves]
up:   10: 1926, 1934, 1955, 1958, 1973, 1987, 1989, 1996, 2000, 2011
down: 10: 1928, 1937, 1957, 1972, 1975, 1988, 1992, 1999, 2007, 2012

Greenock Morton (Morton) [20 moves]
up:   10: 1900, 1929, 1937, 1946, 1950, 1964, 1967, 1978, 1984, 1987
down: 10: 1927, 1933, 1938, 1949, 1952, 1966, 1975, 1983, 1985, 1988

Clyde [18 moves]
up:    9: 1892, 1894, 1906, 1926, 1952, 1957, 1962, 1964, 1973
down:  9: 1893, 1900, 1924, 1951, 1956, 1961, 1963, 1972, 1975

Falkirk [18 moves]
up:    9: 1905, 1936, 1952, 1961, 1970, 1986, 1991, 1994, 2005
down:  9: 1935, 1951, 1959, 1969, 1974, 1988, 1993, 1996, 2010

Dundee [17 moves]
up:    9: 1893, 1947, 1979, 1981, 1992, 1998, 2012, 2014, 2021
down:  8: 1938, 1976, 1980, 1990, 1994, 2005, 2013, 2019

Airdrieonians [16 moves]
up:    8: 1903, 1947, 1950, 1955, 1966, 1974, 1980, 1991
down:  8: 1936, 1948, 1954, 1965, 1973, 1975, 1982, 1993
NB: club were dissolved in 2002; the current Airdrieonians side (called
    Airdrie United until 2013) took the place of Clydebank in Division 2
    (3rd level) 2002/03.

Partick Thistle [16 moves]
up:    8: 1897, 1900, 1902, 1971, 1976, 1992, 2002, 2013
down:  8: 1899, 1901, 1970, 1975, 1982, 1996, 2004, 2018

Saint Johnstone [15 moves]
up:    8: 1924, 1932, 1960, 1963, 1983, 1990, 1997, 2009
down:  7: 1930, 1946, 1962, 1976, 1984, 1994, 2002

Ayr United [14 moves]
up:    7: 1913, 1928, 1937, 1956, 1959, 1966, 1969
down:  7: 1925, 1936, 1939, 1957, 1961, 1967, 1978

Hamilton Academical(s) [14 moves]
up:    7: 1906, 1953, 1965, 1986, 1988, 2008, 2014
down:  7: 1947, 1954, 1966, 1987, 1989, 2011, 2021

Kilmarnock [14 moves]
up:    7: 1899, 1954, 1974, 1976, 1979, 1982, 1993
down:  7: 1947, 1973, 1975, 1977, 1981, 1983, 2021

Raith Rovers [14 moves]
up:    7: 1910, 1927, 1938, 1949, 1967, 1993, 1995
down:  7: 1926, 1929, 1939, 1963, 1970, 1994, 1997

Saint Mirren [12 moves]
up:    6: Foun, 1936, 1968, 1977, 2000, 2006, 2018
down:  6: 1935, 1967, 1971, 1992, 2001, 2015

Stirling Albion [12 moves]
up:    6: 1949, 1951, 1953, 1958, 1961, 1965
down:  6: 1950, 1952, 1956, 1960, 1962, 1968

Dundee United [11 moves]
up:    6: 1925, 1929, 1931, 1960, 1996, 2020
down:  5: 1927, 1930, 1932, 1995, 2016

Heart of Midlothian [10 moves]
up:    5: Foun, 1978, 1980, 1983, 2015, 2021
down:  5: 1977, 1979, 1981, 2014, 2020

NB: Dundee and Raith Rovers did not play in the league in the 1917/18
    and 1918/19 seasons due to war-time transportation difficulties
    but (like Aberdeen) retained full membership;
    there were two separate clubs called Clydebank part of the league
    at different eras, the first making 6 moves (3 up, 3 down) in and
    out of the first level between 1914 and 1931 and the second making
    4 such moves (2 up, 2 down) between 1966 and 2002 (when their
    franchise was sold to newly formed Airdrie United).

Serbia(-Montenegro)

Since 1991, after the Croatian and Slovenian clubs had left the Yugoslav league;
note that the clubs from Bosnia-Herzegovina and Macedonia still were part of the
league structure in 1991/92 while Montenegro only started a separate league in 2006.

Does not include moves between divisions 1/A and 1/B during the seasons from 1993/94
to 1995/96, as all 20 clubs starting those seasons in either of them theoretically
could win the title and thus should be considered a top level club.

Napredak Krusevac [11 moves]
up:    6: 1992, 2000, 2003, 2007, 2013, 2016
down:  5: 1996, 2001, 2004, 2010, 2015
NB: in addition, Napredak were relegated from Division 1/A to 1/B at the halfway
    stage of both the 1993/94 and 1994/95 seasons, only to be promoted back to
    1/A at the end of both seasons.

Javor Ivanjica (Habitfarm) [10 moves]
up:    5: 2002, 2005, 2008, 2015, 2019
down:  5: 2003, 2006, 2014, 2018, 2021

Cukaricki [9 moves]
up:    5: 1995, 1999, 2004, 2007, 2013
down:  4: 1998, 2003, 2005, 2011

Borac Cacak [8 moves]
up:    4: 1994, 1999, 2003, 2014
down:  4: 1997, 2000, 2012, 2018
NB: in addition, Borac were promoted from Division 1/B to 1/A at the halfway stage
    of the 1994/95 season, only to be relegated back to 1/B at the end.

Mladost Lucani [7 moves]
up:    4: 1995, 2001, 2007, 2014
down:  3: 1998, 2002, 2008
NB: withdrew at end of 2007/08 season; would not have been relegated.

Mogren Budva [6 moves] [now Montenegro]
up:    3: 1992, 1998, 2002
down:  3: 1994, 2000, 2003

Radnicki Nis [6 moves]
up:    3: Foun, 1998, 2002, 2012
down:  3: 1996, 2001, 2003
NB: in addition, Radnicki were relegated from Division 1/A to 1/B at the halfway
    stage of both the 1993/94 and 1994/95 seasons, only to be promoted back to
    1/A at the end of both seasons.

NB: also considering moves in Yugoslavia, we obtain the following records: 

Napredak Krusevac [19 moves]
up:   10: 1950, 1976, 1978, 1988, 1992, 2000, 2003, 2007, 2013, 2016
down:  9: 1951, 1977, 1981, 1989, 1996, 2001, 2004, 2010, 2015
NB: in addition, Napredak were relegated from Division 1/A to 1/B at the halfway
    stage of both the 1993/94 and 1994/95 seasons, only to be promoted back to
    1/A at the end of both seasons.

Spartak Subotica [14 moves]
up:    7: Foun, 1949, 1952, 1972, 1986, 1988, 1998, 2009
down:  7: 1948, 1951, 1958, 1973, 1987, 1995, 2000
NB: in addition, Spartak were promoted from Division 1/B to 1/A at the halfway
    stage of the 1993/94 season and relegated back to 1/B at the halfway stage
    of the 1994/95 season.

OFK (BSK) Beograd [12 moves]
up:    6: 1949, 1959, 1980, 1985, 1991, 1998
down:  6: 1958, 1979, 1983, 1986, 1996, 2016
NB: in addition, OFK were promoted from Division 1/B to 1/A at the halfway
    stage of the 1993/94 season and relegated back to 1/B at the halfway stage
    of the 1995/96 season.

Sutjeska Niksic [12 moves]
up:    6: 1964, 1966, 1971, 1984, 1991, 1999
down:  6: 1965, 1967, 1973, 1988, 1995, 2005
NB: Sutjeska now play in Montenegro.

Buducnost Titograd [10 moves]
up:    5: Foun, 1948, 1955, 1962, 1975, 2004
down:  5: 1947, 1950, 1960, 1963, 2001
NB: Buducnost were relegated in 2006, but as a seperate league for Montenegro
    was formed, that relegation did not become effective.

Radnicki Kragujevac [9 moves]
up:    5: 1969, 1974, 1998, 2011, 2021
down:  4: 1972, 1976, 2002, 2015

Radnicki Nis [9 moves]
up:    5: 1962, 1986, 1998, 2002, 2012
down:  4: 1985, 1996, 2001, 2003
NB: in addition, Radnicki were relegated from Division 1/A to 1/B at the halfway
    stage of both the 1993/94 and 1994/95 seasons, only to be promoted back to
    1/A at the end of both seasons.

Slovakia

Since 1993.

Nitra [9 moves]
up:    4: Foun, 1995, 1998, 2005, 2017
down:  5: 1994, 1997, 2000, 2014, 2021

Dubnica [6 moves]
up:    3: 1996, 1998, 2001
down:  3: 1997, 2000, 2011

DAC Dunajská Streda [6 moves]
up:    3: Foun, 1999, 2008, 2013
down:  3: 1998, 2000, 2012
NB: "promotion" 2008 by acquiring Senec.

Tatran Presov [5 moves]
up:    2: Foun, 2008, 2016
down:  3: 2002, 2013, 2018

NB: also considering moves in Czechoslovakia, we obtain the following records: 

Nitra (Slovan, Plastika) [18 moves]
up:    9: 1959, 1971, 1979, 1986, 1992, 1995, 1998, 2005, 2017
down:  9: 1963, 1975, 1984, 1991, 1994, 1997, 2000, 2014, 2021

Tatran Presov (Slavia, Dukla) [16 moves]
up:    8: 1938, 1949, 1969, 1977, 1980, 1990, 2008, 2016
down:  8: 1944, 1966, 1974, 1979, 1988, 2002, 2013, 2018

SK Zilina (ZVL) [15 moves]
up:    6: 1938, 1953, 1958, 1961, 1966, 1982, 1993, 1996
down:  6: 1952, 1956, 1959, 1962, 1978, 1988, 1995

Spartak Trnava (Rapid) [13 moves]
up:    7: 1938, 1947, 1951, 1954, 1964, 1991, 2002
down:  6: 1946, 1950, 1952, 1962, 1990, 2001

1.FC Kosice (Spartak VSS, Jednota ZTS) [12 moves]
up:    6: 1955, 1958, 1963, 1978, 1993, 2006
down:  6: 1956, 1960, 1977, 1981, 2003, 2015

Trencin (TTS, Jednota) [11 moves]
up:    6: 1938, 1960, 1962, 1975, 1997, 2011
down:  5: 1944, 1961, 1972, 1980, 2008

Slovenia

Since 1991.

Triglav Kranj [9 moves]
up:    4: Foun, 1998, 2001, 2010, 2017
down:  5: 1995, 1999, 2002, 2014, 2020

Koper [8 moves]
up:    4: Foun, 1996, 1998, 2000, 2020
down:  4: 1995, 1997, 1999, 2017

Soviet Union

Since 1936.  The last Soviet league season was held in 1991;
here only clubs with at least 8 moves until 1991 are listed;
for further records since 1992 see the entries on Russia and Ukraine
(other successor states will follow).

Lokomotiv Moskva [14 moves]
up:    7: Foun, 1947, 1951, 1964, 1971, 1974, 1987, 1990
down:  7: 1945, 1950, 1963, 1969, 1972, 1980, 1989, 1991 
NB: relegation in 1991 not effective due to CIS break-up;
    Lokomotiv now play in Russia, where they have never been relegated.

Dynamo Minsk [13 moves]
up:    7: 1944, 1951, 1953, 1956, 1962, 1975, 1978
down:  6: 1950, 1952, 1955, 1957, 1973, 1976
NB: Dynamo now play in Belarus, where they have never been relegated.

Kairat Alma Ata [10 moves]
up:    5: 1945, 1956, 1961, 1975, 1978
down:  5: 1955, 1960, 1969, 1977, 1979
NB: Kairat now play in Kazakhstan, where they have never been relegated but were
    excluded from the top level for the 2009 season for financial reasons; they
    returned after one season.

Krylya Sovetov Samara [10 moves]
up:    5: 1945, 1956, 1961, 1975, 1978
down:  5: 1955, 1960, 1969, 1977, 1979
NB: Krylya Sovetov now play in Russia, where they moved 6 more times.

Pakhtakor Tashkent [9 moves]
up:    5: 1959, 1964, 1972, 1977, 1990
down:  4: 1963, 1971, 1975, 1984
NB: Pakhtakor now play in Uzbekistan, where they have never been relegated.

SKA Rostov-na-Donu [8 moves]
up:    4: 1958, 1974, 1978, 1983
down:  4: 1973, 1975, 1981, 1985
NB: SKA now play in Russia, where they did not return to the top level.

Spain

Since 1928.

Real Betis Balompié (Sevilla) [23 moves]
up:   12: 1932, 1942, 1958, 1967, 1971, 1974, 1979, 1990, 1994, 2001, 2011, 2015
down: 11: 1940, 1943, 1966, 1968, 1973, 1978, 1989, 1991, 2000, 2009, 2014

RC Deportivo (La Coruńa) [22 moves]
up:   11: 1941, 1946, 1948, 1962, 1964, 1966, 1968, 1971, 1991, 2012, 2014
down: 10: 1945, 1947, 1957, 1963, 1965, 1967, 1970, 1973, 2011, 2013, 2018

CD Málaga [22 moves] 
up:   11: 1949, 1952, 1954, 1962, 1965, 1967, 1970, 1976, 1979, 1982, 1988
down: 11: 1951, 1953, 1955, 1963, 1966, 1969, 1975, 1977, 1980, 1985, 1990
NB: club dissolved and not related to Málaga CF, promoted 1999 and 2010 and
    relegated 2006 and 2018.

Real Murcia [22 moves]
up:   11: 1940, 1944, 1950, 1955, 1963, 1973, 1980, 1983, 1986, 2003, 2007
down: 11: 1941, 1947, 1951, 1956, 1965, 1975, 1981, 1985, 1989, 2004, 2008

RC Celta (Vigo) [21 moves]
up:   11: 1939, 1945, 1969, 1976, 1978, 1982, 1985, 1987, 1992, 2005, 2012
down: 10: 1944, 1959, 1975, 1977, 1979, 1983, 1986, 1990, 2004, 2007

Real CD Mallorca [17 moves]
up:    9: 1960, 1965, 1969, 1983, 1986, 1989, 1997, 2019, 2021
down:  8: 1963, 1966, 1970, 1984, 1988, 1992, 2013, 2020

Racing de Santander [17 moves]
up:    8: Foun, 1950, 1960, 1973, 1975, 1981, 1984, 1993, 2002
down:  9: 1940, 1955, 1962, 1974, 1979, 1983, 1987, 2001, 2012

Hércules CF (Alicante) [16 moves]
up:    8: 1935, 1945, 1954, 1966, 1974, 1984, 1996, 2010
down:  8: 1942, 1946, 1956, 1967, 1982, 1986, 1997, 2011

Real Valladolid [16 moves]
up:    8: 1948, 1959, 1962, 1980, 1993, 2007, 2012, 2018
down:  8: 1958, 1961, 1964, 1992, 2004, 2010, 2014, 2021

Real CD Zaragoza [16 moves]
up:    8: 1939, 1942, 1951, 1956, 1972, 1978, 2003, 2009
down:  8: 1941, 1943, 1953, 1971, 1977, 2002, 2008, 2013

CA Osasuna (Pamplona) [15 moves]
up:    8: 1935, 1953, 1956, 1961, 1980, 2000, 2016, 2019
down:  7: 1936, 1954, 1960, 1963, 1994, 2014, 2017

Rayo Vallecano (Madrid) [15 moves]
up:    8: 1977, 1989, 1992, 1995, 1999, 2011, 2018, 2021
down:  7: 1980, 1990, 1994, 1997, 2003, 2016, 2019

R Sporting de Gijón [14 moves]
up:    7: 1944, 1951, 1957, 1970, 1977, 2008, 2015
down:  7: 1948, 1954, 1959, 1976, 1998, 2012, 2017

UD Las Palmas [12 moves]
up:    6: 1951, 1954, 1964, 1985, 2000, 2015
down:  6: 1952, 1960, 1983, 1988, 2002, 2018

Real Oviedo [12 moves]
up:    6: 1933, 1952, 1958, 1972, 1975, 1988
down:  6: 1950, 1954, 1965, 1974, 1976, 2001
NB: were inactive 1939/40 but kept their top flight place

Real Sociedad (San Sebastián) [12 moves]
up:    6: Foun, 1941, 1943, 1947, 1949, 1967, 2010
down:  6: 1935, 1942, 1944, 1948, 1962, 2007

Cádiz CF [11 moves]
up:    6: 1977, 1981, 1983, 1985, 2005, 2020
down:  5: 1978, 1982, 1984, 1993, 2006

Elche CF [11 moves]
up:    6: 1959, 1973, 1984, 1988, 2013, 2020
down:  5: 1971, 1978, 1985, 1989, 2015

Granada CF [11 moves]
up:    6: 1941, 1957, 1966, 1968, 2011, 2019
down:  5: 1945, 1961, 1967, 1976, 2017

RCD Espanyol [10 moves]
up:    5: Foun, 1963, 1970, 1990, 1994, 2021
down:  5: 1962, 1969, 1989, 1993, 2020
NB: Espanyol were relegated on five occasions and returned at the first
    time of asking each time

Sweden

Since 1924.

Halmstads BK [21 moves]
up:   11: 1933, 1942, 1947, 1954, 1971, 1973, 1988, 1992, 2012, 2016, 2020
down: 10: 1936, 1946, 1948, 1959, 1972, 1987, 1991, 2011, 2015, 2017

Hammarby IF [20 moves]
up:   10: Foun, 1939, 1954, 1958, 1964, 1966, 1969, 1989, 1993, 1997, 2014
down: 10: 1925, 1940, 1957, 1963, 1965, 1967, 1988, 1990, 1995, 2009

Djurgĺrdens IF [19 moves]
up:   10: 1927, 1936, 1945, 1949, 1961, 1985, 1987, 1994, 1998, 2000
down:  9: 1928, 1937, 1948, 1960, 1981, 1986, 1992, 1996, 1999

GAIS [17 moves]
up:    8: Foun, 1941, 1956, 1963, 1965, 1971, 1987, 1999, 2005
down:  9: 1938, 1955, 1959, 1964, 1970, 1975, 1992, 2000, 2012

GIF Sundsvall [16 moves]
up:    8: 1964, 1974, 1986, 1990, 1999, 2007, 2011, 2014
down:  8: 1965, 1975, 1989, 1991, 2005, 2008, 2012, 2019

Örgryte IS [15 moves]
up:    7: Foun, 1958, 1969, 1974, 1980, 1992, 1994, 2008
down:  8: 1940, 1968, 1973, 1976, 1990, 1993, 2006, 2009

Kalmar FF [13 moves]
up:    7: 1949, 1953, 1975, 1983, 1998, 2001, 2003
down:  6: 1951, 1955, 1982, 1986, 1999, 2002

Landskrona BoIS [13 moves]
up:    6: Foun, 1934, 1944, 1948, 1970, 1993, 2001
down:  7: 1934, 1942, 1945, 1949, 1980, 1994, 2005

Örebro SK [13 moves]
up:    7: 1946, 1948, 1950, 1960, 1988, 2006, 2013
down:  6: 1947, 1949, 1953, 1978, 2004, 2012

BK Häcken [11 moves]
up:    6: 1982, 1992, 1997, 1999, 2004, 2008
down:  5: 1983, 1994, 1998, 2001, 2006

Ĺtvidabergs FF [10 moves]
up:    5: 1951, 1967, 1977, 2009, 2011
down:  5: 1952, 1976, 1982, 2010, 2015

IK Brage [10 moves]
up:    5: 1937, 1943, 1965, 1979, 1992
down:  5: 1941, 1944, 1966, 1990, 1993

Jönköping Södra IF [10 moves]
up:    5: 1945, 1947, 1959, 1968, 2015
down:  5: 1946, 1954, 1960, 1969, 2017

IFK Norrköping [10 moves]
up:    5: Foun, 1935, 1940, 1983, 2007, 2010
down:  5: 1930, 1937, 1982, 2002, 2008

Östers IF (Växjö) [10 moves]
up:    5: 1967, 1989, 2002, 2005, 2012
down:  5: 1988, 1998, 2003, 2006, 2013

Trelleborgs FF [10 moves]
up:    5: 1984, 1991, 2003, 2006, 2017
down:  5: 1985, 2001, 2004, 2011, 2018

Switzerland

Since 1933.

FC Luzern [17 moves]
up:    9: 1936, 1953, 1958, 1967, 1970, 1974, 1979, 1993, 2006
down:  8: 1944, 1955, 1966, 1969, 1972, 1975, 1992, 2003

FC Sankt Gallen [15 moves]
up:    8: 1935, 1939, 1949, 1968, 1971, 1994, 2009, 2012
down:  7: 1937, 1945, 1950, 1970, 1993, 2008, 2011

AC Bellinzona [14 moves]
up:    7: 1944, 1964, 1967, 1976, 1980, 1986, 2008
down:  7: 1960, 1965, 1971, 1977, 1984, 1990, 2011

FC Lugano [14 moves]
up:    7: Foun, 1954, 1961, 1964, 1979, 1988, 1998, 2015
down:  7: 1953, 1960, 1963, 1976, 1980, 1997, 2002
NB: 2002 relegation due to refusal of professional license; FC Lugano went bankrupt
    in 2003 upon which a new club called AC Lugano was founded, which reverted to
    the original name in 2008.

FC La Chaux-de-Fonds [13 moves]
up:    6: Foun, 1938, 1943, 1947, 1975, 1979, 1983
down:  7: 1937, 1942, 1946, 1974, 1976, 1980, 1987

FC Chiasso [12 moves]
up:    6: 1948, 1962, 1972, 1978, 1983, 1992
down:  6: 1961, 1965, 1974, 1982, 1984, 1993

FC Winterthur [12 moves]
up:    6: 1956, 1959, 1966, 1968, 1982, 1984
down:  6: 1958, 1961, 1967, 1977, 1983, 1985

FC Grenchen [10 moves]
up:    5: 1937, 1952, 1957, 1971, 1985
down:  5: 1951, 1956, 1968, 1973, 1986

FC Zürich [10 moves]
up:    5: Foun, 1941, 1947, 1958, 1990, 2017
down:  5: 1934, 1946, 1957, 1988, 2016

Turkey

Since 1959.

Samsunspor [14 moves]
up:    7: 1969, 1976, 1982, 1985, 1991, 1993, 2011
down:  7: 1975, 1979, 1983, 1990, 1992, 2006, 2012

Kayserispor [13 moves]
up:    7: 1973, 1979, 1985, 1992, 1997, 2004, 2015
down:  6: 1975, 1980, 1986, 1996, 1998, 2014
NB: Kayserispor were actually not promoted in 2004, having finished only sixth
    in the second division; instead local rivals Erciyesspor went up as second
    level runners-up, but they swapped places; the secondary club were promoted
    one season later under the name Kayseri Erciyesspor but went down again in
    2007.

Mersin Idmanyurdu SK [12 moves]
up:    6: 1967, 1976, 1980, 1982, 2011, 2014
down:  6: 1974, 1978, 1981, 1983, 2013, 2016

Adana Demirspor [11 moves]
up:    6: 1960, 1973, 1987, 1991, 1994, 2021
down:  5: 1961, 1984, 1990, 1992, 1995

Antalyaspor [11 moves]
up:    6: 1982, 1986, 1994, 2006, 2008, 2015
down:  5: 1985, 1987, 2002, 2007, 2014

Karsiyaka (Izmir) [11 moves]
up:    5: Foun, 1966, 1970, 1987, 1992, 1995
down:  6: 1964, 1967, 1972, 1991, 1994, 1996 

Rizespor [11 moves]
up:    6: 1979, 1985, 2000, 2003, 2013, 2018
down:  5: 1981, 1989, 2002, 2008, 2017

Adanaspor [10 moves]
up:    5: 1971, 1988, 1998, 2002, 2016
down:  5: 1984, 1991, 2001, 2004, 2017

Diyarbakirspor [10 moves]
up:    5: 1977, 1981, 1986, 2001, 2009
down:  5: 1980, 1982, 1987, 2006, 2010

Göztepe SK (Izmir) [10 moves]
up:    5: Foun, 1978, 1981, 1999, 2001, 2017
down:  5: 1977, 1980, 1982, 2000, 2003

Sakaryaspor (Adapazari) [10 moves]
up:    5: 1981, 1987, 1998, 2003, 2006
down:  5: 1986, 1990, 1999, 2004, 2007

Sekerspor (Ankara) [10 moves] (includes Seker Hilalspor)
up:    5: 1959, 1964, 1967, 1972, 1997
down:  5: 1963, 1966, 1969, 1973, 1998

Ukraine

Since 1992.

Hoverla (Zakarpattya) Uzhhorod [10 moves]
up:    5: 2001, 2004, 2007, 2009, 2012
down:  5: 2002, 2006, 2008, 2010, 2016

Chornomorets Odesa [8 moves]
up:    4: Foun, 1999, 2002, 2011, 2021
down:  4: 1998, 2000, 2010, 2019

Metalist Kharkiv [6 moves]
up:    3: Foun, 1998, 2004, 2021
down:  3: 1994, 2003, 2016

Zirka Kropyvnytskyi (Kirovohrad) [6 moves]
up:    3: 1995, 2003, 2016
down:  3: 2000, 2004, 2018

FK (Metalurh) Mariupil [5 moves]
up:    3: 1997, 2008, 2017
down:  2: 2007, 2015

MFK (Evis, SK) Mikolajiv [5 moves]
up:    2: Foun, 1994, 1998
down:  3: 1992, 1996, 1999

FK (Polihraftehnika) Olexandria [5 moves]
up:    3: 2001, 2011, 2015
down:  2: 2003, 2012

Veres Rivne [5 moves]
up:    3: 1992, 2017, 2021
down:  2: 1995, 2018
NB: Veres "merged" with FK Lviv in 2018, ceding their top level status.

Volyn Lutsk [5 moves]
up:    2: Foun, 2002, 2010
down:  3: 1996, 2006, 2017

NB: also considering moves in the Soviet Union, we obtain the following records:

Chornomorets Odesa [15 moves]
up:    8: 1937, 1964, 1973, 1987, 1999, 2002, 2011, 2021
down:  7: 1939, 1970, 1986, 1998, 2000, 2010, 2019

Metalist Kharkiv [13 moves]
up:    7: 1948, 1952, 1959, 1981, 1998, 2004, 2021
down:  6: 1950, 1954, 1963, 1994, 2003, 2016

Hoverla (Zakarpattya) Uzhhorod [10 moves]
up:    5: 2001, 2004, 2007, 2009, 2012
down:  5: 2002, 2006, 2008, 2010, 2016

Shakhtar Donetsk [7 moves]
up:    4: 1937, 1948, 1954, 1972
down:  3: 1940, 1952, 1971

Uruguay

Since 1900.

Sud América [19 moves]
up:   10: 1926, 1930, 1951, 1954, 1957, 1963, 1975, 1994, 2013, 2021
down:  9: 1928, 1945, 1952, 1956, 1960, 1972, 1985, 1996, 2017

Central Español (Central) [18 moves]
up:    9: 1908, 1928, 1961, 1970, 1983, 1993, 2000, 2005, 2012
down:  9: 1927, 1953, 1962, 1973, 1992, 1996, 2004, 2011, 2013
NB: Central left the league in 1922, together with Peńarol, because of a conflict 
    on amateurism.

Racing [18 moves]
up:    9: 1923, 1930, 1956, 1958, 1974, 1989, 1996, 1999, 2008
down:  9: 1928, 1944, 1957, 1971, 1975, 1993, 1997, 2002, 2019

Fénix [17 moves]
up:    9: 1922, 1956, 1959, 1973, 1977, 1985, 2000, 2007, 2009
down:  8: 1924, 1958, 1967, 1976, 1981, 1986, 2005, 2008

Bella Vista [14 moves]
up:    7: 1922, 1949, 1968, 1976, 1997, 2005, 2010
down:  7: 1941, 1950, 1974, 1994, 2004, 2009, 2013

Miramar Misiones (Miramar) [14 moves]
up:    7: 1942, 1953, 1979, 1986, 2002, 2010, 2013
down:  7: 1947, 1954, 1984, 1988, 2008, 2011, 2014
NB: does not include entry in rebel league 1923.

Rampla Juniors [14 moves]
up:    7: 1921, 1944, 1980, 1992, 2004, 2014, 2016
down:  7: 1943, 1970, 1987, 1999, 2012, 2015, 2019

Liverpool [13 moves]
up:    7: 1919, 1937, 1966, 1980, 1987, 2002, 2015
down:  6: 1929, 1963, 1979, 1982, 2000, 2014

Rentistas [13 moves]
up:    7: 1971, 1988, 1996, 2003, 2011, 2013, 2019
down:  6: 1980, 1992, 2001, 2007, 2012, 2016

CA River Plate [13 moves]
up:    7: 1931, 1943, 1967, 1978, 1984, 1991, 2004
down:  6: 1942, 1955, 1977, 1983, 1990, 2003
NB: does not include River Plate FC (1906-1920 and rebel league 1923).

Progreso [11 moves]
up:    6: 1945, 1979, 2001, 2006, 2012, 2017
down:  5: 1946, 1995, 2002, 2008, 2013

Villa Española [11 moves]
up:    6: 1997, 1999, 2001, 2008, 2016, 2021
down:  5: 1998, 2000, 2003, 2009, 2016
NB: promoted in 2015/16 and relegated after 2016 transitional season.

Wales

Since 1992.

Haverfordwest County [6 moves]
up:    3: Foun, 1997, 2015, 2020
down:  3: 1994, 2011, 2016

Afan Lido [5 moves]
up:    2: Foun, 1998, 2011
down:  3: 1996, 2005, 2014

Caernarfon Town [5 moves]
up:    3: 1995, 2001, 2018
down:  2: 2000, 2009

Cefn Druids [5 moves]
up:    3: 1999, 2014, 2016
down:  2: 2010, 2015

Llanelli [5 moves]
up:    2: Foun, 1999, 2004
down:  3: 1996, 2003, 2013
NB: Llanelli were liquidated in 2013; Llanelli Town (promoted 2018, relegated 2019)
    are a new club.

Airbus UK Broughton [4 moves]
up:    2: 2004, 2019
down:  2: 2017, 2020

Prestatyn Town [4 moves]
up:    2: 2008, 2017
down:  2: 2015, 2018

Rhyl [4 moves]
up:    2: 1994, 2013
down:  2: 2010, 2017

Welshpool Town [4 moves]
up:    2: 1996, 2002
down:  2: 1998, 2010

Yugoslavia

Since 1946.  The last Yugoslav league season was held in 1990/91;
here only clubs with at least 8 moves until 1991 are listed;
for further records since 1991 see the entries on Bosnia-Herzegovina,
Croatia, Kosovo, Montenegro, (North) Macedonia, Serbia and Slovenia.

Vardar Skopje [14 moves]    
up:    7: Foun, 1952, 1956, 1960, 1963, 1971, 1979, 1991
down:  7: 1948, 1955, 1959, 1962, 1970, 1976, 1990
NB: Vardar left the Yugoslav league after the 1991/92 season and now play in
    (North) Macedonia.

Zagreb (Borac) [13 moves]
up:    7: 1950, 1954, 1964, 1973, 1976, 1980, 1991
down:  6: 1953, 1958, 1970, 1974, 1979, 1982
NB: Zagreb left the Yugoslav league after the 1990/91 season and now play in
    Croatia, where they moved 3 more times.

Celik Zenica [10 moves]    
up:    5: 1966, 1968, 1979, 1983, 1985
down:  5: 1967, 1978, 1980, 1984, 1989
NB: Celik left the Yugoslav league after the 1991/92 season and now play in 
    Bosnia-Herzegovina, where they moved once.

Spartak Subotica [10 moves]
up:    5: Foun, 1949, 1952, 1972, 1986, 1988
down:  5: 1948, 1951, 1958, 1973, 1987
NB: Spartak now play in Serbia, where they moved 4 more times.

Buducnost Titograd [8 moves]
up:    4: Foun, 1948, 1955, 1962, 1975
down:  4: 1947, 1950, 1960, 1963
NB: Buducnost played in Serbia-Montenegro between 1992 and 2006, where they
    moved 2 more times; they now play in Montenegro.

Napredak Krusevac [8 moves]
up:    4: 1950, 1976, 1978, 1988
down:  4: 1951, 1977, 1981, 1989
NB: Napredak now play in Serbia, where they moved 11 more times.

OFK (BSK) Beograd [8 moves]
up:    4: 1949, 1959, 1980, 1985
down:  4: 1958, 1979, 1983, 1986
NB: OFK now play in Serbia, where they moved 4 more times.

Sutjeska Niksic [8 moves]
up:    4: 1964, 1966, 1971, 1984
down:  4: 1965, 1967, 1973, 1988
NB: Sutjeska played in Serbia-Montenegro between 1992 and 2006, where they
    moved 4 more times; they now play in Montenegro.

Zeljeznicar Sarajevo [8 moves]
up:    4: Foun, 1954, 1957, 1962, 1978
down:  4: 1947, 1956, 1959, 1977
NB: Zeljeznicar left the Yugoslav league after the 1991/92 season (in which
    they would have been relegated) and now play in Bosnia-Herzegovina, where
    they have never been relegated.

The records above are up to date as of August 31, 2021.

About this document

With thanks to Dale Arnett, Yaniv Bleicher, Diego Cervini, Mike Dryomin, Gualtier Maldč, Pawel Mogielnicki, Heikki Pietarinen, Ricardo Pontes, Razvan Toma and Andreas Werner for additions and corrections.

Prepared and maintained by Karel Stokkermans for the Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation

Author: Karel Stokkermans (karel.rsssf@gmail.com
Last updated: 18 Nov 2021

(C) Copyright Karel Stokkermans and RSSSF 1996/2021
You are free to copy this document in whole or part provided that proper acknowledgement is given to the author. All rights reserved.