Dutch East Indies 1928/29 and 1929


Stedenwedstrijden 1929

Batavia | Bandoeng | Blitar | Oost Sumatra | Soerabaja
Javaansch Clubkampioenschap


Batavia 1928/29

Eerste Klasse

Final Table:

 1.S.V.B.B.         12  9  1  2  30- 8  19  Championship Playoff
   Oliveo           12  8  3  1  39-15  19  Championship Playoff
 3.Hercules         12  9  0  3  31-15  18
 4.U.M.S.           12  3  4  5  23-24  10
 5.Vios             12  2  3  7  16-35   7
 6.Sparta           12  2  3  7  15-37   7
 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 
 7.B.V.C.           12  2  0 10  15-35   4  Relegation Playoff

[Aug 19]
S.V.B.B.         1-0 Sparta   
U.M.S.           3-1 Vios          

[Aug 26]
Hercules         3-1 B.V.C.    
Oliveo           1-1 U.M.S.        

[Sep 9]
Vios             0-0 S.V.B.B.         
Sparta           1-2 Hercules  

[Sep ?]
B.V.C.           0-7 Oliveo         
S.V.B.B.         2-1 U.M.S.      

[Oct 7]
S.V.B.B.         4-0 B.V.C.

[Oct 14]
Hercules         1-0 S.V.B.B.
Vios             1-6 Oliveo

[Oct 21]
Oliveo           2-1 Hercules
B.V.C.           2-3 Sparta

[Oct 28]
U.M.S.           1-2 B.V.C.           [annulled, B.V.C. used ineligible player]
Sparta           2-2 Oliveo

[Nov 4]
B.V.C.           0-2 Vios
U.M.S.           1-3 Hercules

[Nov 11]
Oliveo           1-2 S.V.B.B.
Sparta           2-2 Vios

[Nov 18]
Vios             1-2 Hercules
U.M.S.           7-0 Sparta

[Dec 2]
Sparta           0-3 S.V.B.B.
Oliveo           3-2 B.V.C.

[Dec 9]
Hercules         8-0 Sparta
U.M.S.           1-0 B.V.C.           [replay annulled match Oct 28]

[Dec 16]
Vios             2-2 U.M.S.
B.V.C.           0-1 Hercules

[Jan 6]
U.M.S.           0-3 S.V.B.B.
Sparta           3-1 B.V.C.

[Jan 13]
U.M.S.           2-2 Oliveo
Hercules         3-0 Vios

[Jan 20]
Oliveo           2-0 Sparta

[Jan 27]
S.V.B.B.         4-1 Vios

[Feb 3]
S.V.B.B.         1-3 Oliveo
Hercules         4-0 U.M.S.

[Feb 10]
B.V.C.           0-5 S.V.B.B.

[Feb 24]
Vios             0-5 B.V.C.           
Sparta           2-2 U.M.S.

[Mar 3]
S.V.B.B.         5-1 Hercules

[Mar 10]
Hercules         2-4 Oliveo

[Mar 17]
Oliveo           6-1 Vios
B.V.C.           4-3 U.M.S.

[Apr 21]
Vios             5-2 Sparta
 
Final Table:

 1.S.V.B.B.         12  9  1  2  30- 8  19  Championship Playoff
   Oliveo           12  8  3  1  39-15  19  Championship Playoff
 3.Hercules         12  9  0  3  31-15  18
 4.U.M.S.           12  3  4  5  23-24  10
 5.Vios             12  2  3  7  16-35   7
 6.Sparta           12  2  3  7  15-37   7
 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 
 7.B.V.C.           12  2  0 10  15-35   4  Relegation Playoff

Championship Match [Apr 7, Planten- en Dierentuin]
S.V.B.B.         6-0 Oliveo

Promotion/Relegation Playoff

First Leg [Mar 29]
B.V.C.           1-2 V.V.M.  

Second Leg [Apr 14]
V.V.M.           0-0 B.V.C.

NB: V.V.M. promoted; B.V.C. remained in Eerste Klasse after a vote on
    6 June at a V.B.O. board meeting (following a general meeting on
    26 May at which a corresponding proposal by Sparta and V.V.M. was
    supported by 23 of the 32 votes).

Van Arcken Beker 1928/29

NB: matches 2x20 minutes, except for final; in case of a draw, the
    team with the worse league position qualifies.

Round 1 [Dec 22]
U.M.S.           0-1 Hercules
Oliveo           6-0 T.Y.H.
B.V.C.           3-1 V.V.M.

Quarterfinals [Dec 23]
Oliveo           1-1 S.V.B.B.         [Oliveo qualified]
Vios             1-0 B.V.V.
Sparta           1-1 Hercules         [Sparta qualified]
B.V.C.           3-0 H.B.S.           [H.B.S. played in the 4de Klasse]

Semifinals [Dec 30]
Oliveo           0-0 Sparta           [Sparta qualified]
B.V.C.           1-1 Vios             [B.V.C. qualified]
  [also (final) match in honour of silver jubilee B.V.C.]

Final [Jan 1]
Sparta           3-1 B.V.C.

1927/28 | 1929/30 | overview

Bandoeng

Eerste Klasse 1929

Final Table:

 1.L.U.N.O.         10  7  1  2  32-12  15  Championship Playoff
   U.N.I.           10  7  1  2  30-14  15  Championship Playoff
 3.Sidolig          10  6  1  3  23-13  13
 4.L.A.             10  3  2  5  17-26   8
 5.Velocitas        10  3  2  5  16-25   8
 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 6.Sparta           10  0  1  9  10-38   1  Relegation Playoff

NB: L.A.     = Luchtvaart Afdeeling
    L.U.N.O. = Laat U Niet Overwinnen
    Sidolig  = Sport in de open lucht is gezond
    U.N.I.   = Uitspanning Na Inspanning
    Velocitas from Tjimahi (now Cimahi)

NB: results before Oct not known except:

[dates unknown]
L.A.             3-3 U.N.I.          
L.U.N.O.         awd U.N.I.           [awarded 5-0, originally 0-6,
                                       U.N.I. used ineligible player]
Sidolig          1-0 L.U.N.O.         

Table (Oct 1):

 1.Sidolig           3  2  1  0   6- 2   5
 2.L.U.N.O.          4  3  0  1  12- 4   6
 3.L.A.              6  2  2  2  13-15   6
 4.Velocitas         5  1  2  2   9-11   4
 5.U.N.I.            2  0  1  1   3- 8   1
 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 6.Sparta            2  0  0  2   2- 5   0

[Oct 6]
L.U.N.O.         6-0 Sidolig
[Oct 13]
U.N.I.           abd L.U.N.O.         [abandoned at 1-1 due to rain]
[Oct 20]
Sidolig          0-2 U.N.I.           
[Oct 27]
L.A.             0-4 L.U.N.O.
[earlier matches, dates unknown, results homologated early Nov]
Velocitas        0-4 U.N.I.
Sidolig          4-1 Velocitas     
[Nov 10]
Sidolig          4-0 Sparta           
[Nov 16]
Sparta           1-6 Sidolig
[Nov 17]
U.N.I.           4-1 Velocitas        
[Nov 24]
L.A.             3-1 Sparta           
[Dec 1]
U.N.I.           abd Sparta           [abandoned 5-0 due to rain]
Velocitas        2-1 L.U.N.O.         
[Dec 7]
U.N.I.           6-0 Sparta
[Dec 8]
Sidolig          3-0 L.A.
[Dec 14]
U.N.I.           1-0 Sidolig 
[Dec 15]
L.U.N.O.         3-3 Sparta           [after protest, originally 4-3]
[Dec 21]
U.N.I.           3-1 L.A.
[Dec 22]
Sparta           1-3 L.U.N.O.   
[Dec 23,24]
Velocitas        3-1 Sparta
[Dec 25]
U.N.I.           2-3 L.U.N.O.   
  [L.U.N.O. were announced champions after this match but
   afterwards Sparta's protest concerning the match on Dec 15
   was upheld and L.U.N.O. lost a point]
[Dec 29]
Sparta           1-5 U.N.I. 

Final Table:

 1.L.U.N.O.         10  7  1  2  32-12  15  Championship Playoff
   U.N.I.           10  7  1  2  30-14  15  Championship Playoff
 3.Sidolig          10  6  1  3  23-13  13
 4.L.A.             10  3  2  5  17-26   8
 5.Velocitas        10  3  2  5  16-25   8
 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 6.Sparta           10  0  1  9  10-38   1  Relegation Playoff

NB: L.A.     = Luchtvaart Afdeeling
    L.U.N.O. = Laat U Niet Overwinnen
    Sidolig  = Sport in de open lucht is gezond
    U.N.I.   = Uitspanning Na Inspanning
    Velocitas from Tjimahi (now Cimahi)

Championship Playoff [Jan 12, 1930, Sidolig-veld]
U.N.I.           2-1 L.U.N.O.   

Promotion/Relegation Playoff

First Leg [Jan 26, 1930]
Sparta           2-3 Y.M.C. 

Second Leg [Feb 2, 1930]
Y.M.C.           1-3 Sparta

Playoff [Feb 8, 1930, Sidolig-veld]
Sparta           2-2 Y.M.C.

Playoff Replay [Feb 14, 1930, Sidolig-veld]
Sparta           2-0 Y.M.C.

NB: both remain in former class.  Y.M.C. were promoted later in
    1930 after all.

Eerewedstrijd [Feb 9, 1930, Nieuw-Houtrust]
U.N.I.           0-1 Rest B.V.B.

1926 | 1935/36 | overview

Blitar 1929

Eerste Klasse

Final Table (Nov 13):

 1.E.V.A.            5  5  0  0  21- 1  10  Champions
 2.Mars              5  4  0  1  14- 4   8
 3.Tjin Ik Hwee      5  3  0  2   8- 7   6
 4.Kloet             5  1  1  3   9-11   3
 5.Joe Ik Hwee       5  1  1  3   4-13   3
 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 
 6.Stervogel         5  0  0  5   0-20   0  Relegation Playoff

Tweede Klasse

Table (Nov 13):

 1.Kloet II          3  3  0  0   9- 0   6
 2.Komeet            3  2  1  0  10- 1   5
 3.B.O.M.            5  3  1  1  14- 4   7
 4.Tjin Ik Hwee II   5  1  2  2   6- 4   4
 5.Joe Ik Hwee II    4  1  1  2   1- 9   3
 6.De Zon            3  0  1  2   1- 7   1
 7.S.V.C.            3  0  0  3   0-16   0

1930 

Oost Sumatra 1929

Eerste Klasse

NB: competition organised by the Oost Sumatra Voetbal Bond;
    all clubs apart from L.S.V. and P.V.V. were based in Medan;
    V.O.P. were a Moluccan club; H.V.V., I.V.C. and M.S.V.
    were all "inlandsche" clubs

Final Table (Sep 17):

 1.I.V.C.           14 10  2  2  39-14  22  Champions
 2.V.O.P.           14 10  1  3  33-17  21
 3.L.S.V.           12  8  1  3  40-16  17
 4.H.V.V.           14  6  1  7  25-35  13 
 5.P.V.V.           13  5  2  6  30-28  12
 6.M.S.V.           13  4  2  7  24-35   8  [-2]
 7.Go Ahead         14  3  2  9  17-41   8 
 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 
 8.D.S.V.           14  1  3 10  22-44   5  Relegation Playoff

NB: M.S.V. 2 points deducted for causing the abandonment of
      the match against L.S.V. on Aug 17;
    remaining 2 matches L.S.V. not played due to irrelevance
      and costs involved.

NB: D.S.V.   = Deli Sportvereeniging 
    H.V.V.   = Horas Voetbal Vereeniging 
    I.V.C.   = Internationale Voetbal Club 
    L.S.V.   = Langkat Sportvereeniging (from Bindjey)
    M.S.V.   = Medansche Sportvereeniging
    P.V.V.   = Perbaoengan Voetbal Vereeniging (from Perbaoengan)
    V.O.P.   = Voor Ons Pleizier 

[dates unknown (before Apr 5)]
L.S.V.           1-2 H.V.V.           [first match L.S.V.]
D.S.V.           1-6 V.O.P.      
Go Ahead         2-0 D.S.V.  
Go Ahead         0-3 V.O.P.                  
H.V.V.           3-1 Go Ahead        
I.V.C.           0-0 P.V.V.          
L.S.V.           5-3 V.O.P.                
M.S.V.           2-2 H.V.V.           
P.V.V.           1-5 L.S.V.           
         
[Apr 6]
D.S.V.           2-2 I.V.C.          
[Apr 7]
M.S.V.           1-5 P.V.V.    
[Apr 13]
H.V.V.           2-3 V.O.P.          
[Apr 14]
I.V.C.           7-0 M.S.V.          
[Apr 16]
D.S.V.           1-4 L.S.V.           
[Apr 20]
Go Ahead         0-3 I.V.C.           
[Apr 21]
V.O.P.           2-0 M.S.V.          
[Apr 28]
D.S.V.           2-4 P.V.V.          
[May 1]
L.S.V.           5-0 Go Ahead     
[May 4]
M.S.V.           2-2 D.S.V.          
[May 5]
P.V.V.           2-0 H.V.V.          
[May 12]
P.V.V.           0-0 Go Ahead         
H.V.V.           4-1 D.S.V.          
[May 16]
L.S.V.           4-2 M.S.V.    
[May 19]
I.V.C.           1-0 V.O.P.           [originally 1-1 but I.V.C. protested 
[May 26]                               successfully against the penalty 
V.O.P.           5-2 P.V.V.            awarded to V.O.P. from which they scored]
[Jun 1] 
L.S.V.           4-1 I.V.C.           
[Jun 2]
Go Ahead         2-8 M.S.V.           
[Jun 9]
I.V.C.           6-3 H.V.V.          

Half-way Table (Jun 10):

 1.L.S.V.            7  6  0  1  28-10  12
 2.V.O.P.            7  5  1  1  23-11  11
 3.I.V.C.            7  3  3  1  20-10   9
 4.P.V.V.            7  3  2  2  14-13   8
 5.H.V.V.            7  3  1  3  16-16   7 
 6.M.S.V.            7  1  2  4  15-24   4
 7.Go Ahead          7  1  1  5   5-22   3 
 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 
 8.D.S.V.            7  0  2  5   9-24   2

NB: Charles van Baar van Slangenburgh reportedly had scored 23 of
    the 28 goals L.S.V. scored in the first half of the season.

[Jun 16]
V.O.P.           0-0 L.S.V.           
[Jun 22]
H.V.V.           1-4 M.S.V.          
[Jun 23]
D.S.V.           1-1 Go Ahead        
P.V.V.           1-3 I.V.C.           
[Jun 30]
V.O.P.           2-1 D.S.V.          
P.V.V.           3-0 M.S.V.          
[Jul 1]
H.V.V.           1-0 L.S.V.          
[Jul 6]
V.O.P.           1-0 Go Ahead        
[Jul 7]
M.S.V.           0-2 I.V.C.          
P.V.V.           6-2 D.S.V.          
[Jul 13]
I.V.C.           4-0 D.S.V.          
[Jul 14]
Go Ahead         2-5 H.V.V.          
[Jul 16]
L.S.V.           n/p P.V.V.            
[Jul 20]
I.V.C.           4-0 Go Ahead        
[Jul 21]
M.S.V.           2-0 V.O.P.     
[Jul 28]
H.V.V.           2-1 P.V.V.          
[Aug 1]
Go Ahead         1-6 L.S.V.          
[Aug 4]
I.V.C.           3-0 H.V.V.          
P.V.V.           3-4 V.O.P.       
[Aug 11]
D.S.V.           7-0 H.V.V.      
[Aug 17] 
L.S.V.           abd M.S.V.           [abandoned at 1-1 in second half
[Aug 18]                               after a sent off M.S.V. player 
Go Ahead         4-2 P.V.V.            refused to leave the pitch; M.S.V.
[Aug 25]                               2 points deducted]
V.O.P.           2-0 I.V.C.          
[Aug 31]
D.S.V.           1-4 L.S.V.          
[Sep 1]
M.S.V.           0-4 Go Ahead        
[Sep 8]
D.S.V.           1-3 M.S.V.           [protest D.S.V.; referred to         
[Sep 14]                               N.I.V.B. in Java]
V.O.P.           2-0 H.V.V.          
[Sep 16]
I.V.C.           3-2 L.S.V.     

Final Table (Sep 17):

 1.I.V.C.           14 10  2  2  39-14  22  Champions
 2.V.O.P.           14 10  1  3  33-17  21
 3.L.S.V.           12  8  1  3  40-16  17
 4.H.V.V.           14  6  1  7  25-35  13 
 5.P.V.V.           13  5  2  6  30-28  12
 6.M.S.V.           13  4  2  7  24-35   8  [-2]
 7.Go Ahead         14  3  2  9  17-41   8 
 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 
 8.D.S.V.           14  1  3 10  22-44   5  Relegation Playoff

NB: M.S.V. 2 points deducted for causing the abandonment of
      the match against L.S.V. on Aug 17;
    remaining 2 matches L.S.V. not played due to irrelevance
      and costs involved.

NB: D.S.V.   = Deli Sportvereeniging 
    H.V.V.   = Horas Voetbal Vereeniging 
    I.V.C.   = Internationale Voetbal Club 
    L.S.V.   = Langkat Sportvereeniging (from Bindjey)
    M.S.V.   = Medansche Sportvereeniging
    P.V.V.   = Perbaoengan Voetbal Vereeniging (from Perbaoengan)
    V.O.P.   = Voor Ons Pleizier 

Promotion/Relegation Matches

First Leg [Nov 10]
P.S.V.           1-3 D.S.V.

Second Leg [Dec 1]
D.S.V.           2-2 P.S.V.           

NB: D.S.V. remain in 1st class; P.S.V. (Persadaän Sport Vereeniging)
    and Mahkota S.C. were later admitted as well, while C.S.C. were 
    readmitted and P.V.V. withdrew for the 1930 season.

Tweede Klasse

Champions: I.V.C. 2

NB: apparently P.S.V. qualified for promotion/relegation playoff
    as runners-up.

1926 | 1930 | overview  

Soerabaja

Eerste Klasse 1929

NB: Tiong Hoa were readmitted following a suspension.

Final Table:

 1.Tiong Hoa        14 11  2  1  53-12  24  Champions
 2.Excelsior        14 10  3  1  44-17  23
 3.H.B.S.           14 10  1  3  55-19  21
 4.T.H.O.R.         14  8  2  4  43-16  18
 5.Quick            14  5  2  7  26-27  12
 6.A.S.C.           14  2  2 10  14-39   6
 7.S.V.S.           14  3  0 11  13-68   6
 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 8.Zeemacht         14  0  2 12   9-59   2  Relegation Playoff

NB: A.S.C.   = Armenian Sporting Club (from Karangmendjangan district)
    H.B.S.   = Houdt Braef Stand
    T.H.O.R. = Tot Heil Onzer Ribben (from Karangmendjangan district)

[Mar 17]
T.H.O.R.         2-1 Tiong Hoa
Zeemacht         2-2 Quick            
S.V.S.           2-1 A.S.C.       
[Apr 7]
Tiong Hoa        4-0 Quick    
[Apr 21]
Quick            1-0 S.V.S.
[Apr 28]
A.S.C.           1-8 Tiong Hoa
Excelsior        3-1 Zeemacht
[May 5]
S.V.S.           0-8 Excelsior
Tiong Hoa        9-1 Zeemacht
A.S.C.           0-2 Quick
[May 26]
Quick            2-4 H.B.S.
A.S.C.           0-0 Zeemacht
[Jun 2]
Excelsior        5-1 Quick
Zeemacht         1-2 S.V.S.
[Jun 9]
Quick            2-2 T.H.O.R.
S.V.S.           0-5 Tiong Hoa        
[Jun 16]
Tiong Hoa        2-2 Excelsior        
H.B.S.           9-0 S.V.S.
Zeemacht         0-7 T.H.O.R.
[Jun 23]
Excelsior        3-2 T.H.O.R.         
Zeemacht         2-2 H.B.S.           [annulled after protest H.B.S.]
[Jun 30]
T.H.O.R.         6-1 A.S.C.           
[Jul 7]
H.B.S.           5-2 T.H.O.R.         
A.S.C.           2-3 Excelsior
[Jul 14]
Tiong Hoa        4-0 H.B.S.
T.H.O.R.         8-0 S.V.S.
[Jul 21]
H.B.S.           1-0 A.S.C.   
[Jul 28]
Excelsior        3-3 H.B.S.
[Aug 18]
Zeemacht         1-4 H.B.S.           [replay match Jun 23]
A.S.C.           2-1 S.V.S.
[Aug 25]
H.B.S.           2-1 Excelsior
A.S.C.           1-1 T.H.O.R.
[Sep 15]
Zeemacht         0-6 Excelsior 
S.V.S.          0-10 Quick
Tiong Hoa        1-0 T.H.O.R.
[Sep 22]
S.V.S.           6-0 Zeemacht
Tiong Hoa        4-0 A.S.C. 
[Sep 29]
T.H.O.R.         2-1 H.B.S. 
Excelsior        3-1 A.S.C.
Zeemacht         1-2 Tiong Hoa
[Oct 6]
H.B.S.           2-4 Tiong Hoa
Quick            4-2 Zeemacht
[Oct 20]
Quick            0-2 Tiong Hoa
A.S.C.           0-6 H.B.S.
T.H.O.R.         4-0 S.V.S.
[Oct 27]
H.B.S.           3-0 Quick
T.H.O.R.         0-1 Excelsior
Zeemacht         0-5 A.S.C.
[Nov 3]
S.V.S.          0-11 H.B.S.
Quick            0-1 Excelsior 
T.H.O.R.         5-0 Zeemacht
[Nov 10]
T.H.O.R.         2-0 Quick
H.B.S.           4-0 Zeemacht 
Tiong Hoa        5-1 S.V.S.
[Nov 17]
Tiong Hoa        2-2 Excelsior        
[Nov 24]
Excelsior        3-1 S.V.S.
Quick            2-0 A.S.C. 

Final Table:

 1.Tiong Hoa        14 11  2  1  53-12  24  Champions
 2.Excelsior        14 10  3  1  44-17  23
 3.H.B.S.           14 10  1  3  55-19  21
 4.T.H.O.R.         14  8  2  4  43-16  18
 5.Quick            14  5  2  7  26-27  12
 6.A.S.C.           14  2  2 10  14-39   6
 7.S.V.S.           14  3  0 11  13-68   6
 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 8.Zeemacht         14  0  2 12   9-59   2  Relegation Playoff

NB: A.S.C.   = Armenian Sporting Club (from Karangmendjangan district)
    H.B.S.   = Houdt Braef Stand
    T.H.O.R. = Tot Heil Onzer Ribben (from Karangmendjangan district)

Eerewedstrijd 

[Dec 8]
Tiong Hoa        5-2 S.V.B. bondselftal

1928 | 1930 | overview

Javaansch Clubkampioenschap

Held in Soerabaja.  Organised by the S.V.B. on the occasion of
its 20th anniversary between the champion clubs of the four
major cities.  First edition, the second was held 1939.

NB: matches 2x25 minutes

Participants:
Bandoeng:  U.N.I.   (Uitspanning Na Inspanning)
Batavia:   S.V.B.B. (Sport Vereeniging Binnenlandsch Bestuur)
Semarang:  M.O.T.   (Moed Overwint Tegenspoed)
Soerabaja: T.H.O.R. (Tot Heil Onzer Ribben)

[Aug 2]
T.H.O.R.         2-1 M.O.T.
S.V.B.B.         3-2 U.N.I.
[Aug 3]
S.V.B.B.         3-0 M.O.T.           
T.H.O.R.         2-2 U.N.I.
[Aug 4]
M.O.T.           2-2 U.N.I.
T.H.O.R.         1-3 S.V.B.B.

Final Table:

 1.S.V.B.B.          3  3  0  0   9- 3   6  Champions
 2.T.H.O.R.          3  1  1  1   5- 6   3
 3.U.N.I.            3  0  2  1   6- 7   2
 4.M.O.T.            3  0  1  2   3- 7   1

1939 | overview

1927/28.

1929/30.

dutch east indies - football history.


About this document

Prepared and maintained by Karel Stokkermans for the Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation

Author: Karel Stokkermans
Last updated: 16 Jan 2014

(C) Copyright Karel Stokkermans and RSSSF 2011/14
You are free to copy this document in whole or part provided that proper acknowledgement is given to the author. All rights reserved.