Surinam 2013/14


First Level (Hoofdklasse)
Cup Tournaments
Second Level (Eerste Klasse)
Lower Levels (regional)

First Level (Hoofdklasse)

Final Table:  

 1.Inter Moengotapoe (Moengo) 18  14  2  2  42-17  44  Champions
 2.Excelsior (Meerzorg)       18  12  2  4  40-28  38
 3.Leo Victor (Paramaribo)    18   9  5  4  38-20  32
 4.WBC (Paramaribo)           18   8  5  5  46-30  29
 5.SNL (Paramaribo)           18   7  4  7  36-39  25
 6.SV Notch (Moengo)          18   4  7  7  26-30  19
 7.Takdier Boys (Paramaribo)  18   5  4  9  24-31  19
 8.Transvaal (Paramaribo)     18   4  6  8  19-30  18  Playoff
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 9.Boskamp (Boskamp)          18   5  3 10  32-45  18  Playoff
-----------------------------------------------------
10.Robinhood (Paramaribo)     18   0  6 12  20-53   6  Relegated

Round 1
[Oct 25]
Leo Victor        0-0 Inter Moengotapoe 
[Oct 26]
Transvaal         1-3 SNL 	          
Boskamp           2-3 WBC               
[Oct 27]
Robinhood         2-2 Notch             
[Oct 29]
Takdier Boys      3-5 Excelsior         

Round 2
[Oct 30]
WBC               1-2 Transvaal         
[Nov 1]
SNL 	          0-2 Takdier Boys      
[Nov 2]
Notch             0-2 Leo Victor        
Excelsior         1-0 Boskamp           
[Nov 5]
Robinhood         0-3 Inter Moengotapoe 

Round 3
[Nov 8]
Leo Victor        2-1 Takdier Boys      
[Nov 9]
Inter Moengotapoe 0-1 Notch             
Boskamp           2-4 SNL 	          
Transvaal         1-0 Robinhood         
[Nov 10]
WBC               2-3 Excelsior         

Round 4
[Nov 22]
Takdier Boys      1-0 Transvaal         
[Nov 23]
Excelsior         5-1 Robinhood         
Inter Moengotapoe 0-0 SNL 	          
[Nov 24]
Boskamp           1-0 Notch             
Leo Victor        0-0 WBC               

Round 5
[Nov 27]
SNL 	          2-3 Leo Victor        
[Nov 29]
WBC               2-1 Takdier Boys      
[Nov 30]
Notch             1-2 Excelsior         
Robinhood         2-3 Boskamp           
[Dec 1]
Transvaal         4-2 Inter Moengotapoe 

Round 6
[Dec 6]
WBC               2-1 Robinhood         
[Dec 7]
Inter Moengotapoe 2-0 Excelsior         
Boskamp           2-3 Takdier Boys      
SNL 	          2-5 Notch             
[Dec 8]
Leo Victor        3-1 Transvaal         

Round 7
[Dec 21]
Robinhood         1-6 Leo Victor        
Excelsior         2-2 SNL 	          
Notch             3-3 WBC               
Takdier Boys      1-3 Inter Moengotapoe 
[Dec 22]
Transvaal         1-1 Boskamp           

Round 8
[Jan 17]
SNL 	          1-1 Robinhood         
[Jan 18]
Boskamp           3-2 Leo Victor        
Inter Moengotapoe 2-1 WBC               
Takdier Boys      2-2 Notch             
Excelsior         2-0 Transvaal         

Round 9
[Jan 24]
Leo Victor        6-2 Excelsior         
[Jan 25]
Boskamp           3-4 Inter Moengotapoe 
Notch             0-0 Transvaal         
Robinhood         1-1 Takdier Boys      
[Jan 26]
WBC               1-1 SNL 	          

Round 10
[Feb 14]
SNL 	          2-1 Transvaal         
[Feb 15]
Inter Moengotapoe 2-1 Leo Victor        
Excelsior         0-0 Takdier Boys      
[Feb 16]
Notch             3-2 Robinhood         
WBC               6-1 Boskamp           

Round 11
[Feb 21]
Takdier Boys      0-1 SNL 	          
[Feb 22]
Inter Moengotapoe 2-0 Robinhood         
Boskamp           1-4 Excelsior         
Transvaal         1-5 WBC               
[Feb 23]
Leo Victor        3-1 Notch             

Round 12
[Feb 26]
SNL 	          5-3 Boskamp           
[Mar 1]
Takdier Boys      2-1 Leo Victor        
Excelsior         0-3 WBC               
[Mar 2]
Notch             1-3 Inter Moengotapoe 
Robinhood         1-1 Transvaal         

Round 13
[Mar 12]
Transvaal         2-1 Takdier Boys      
[Mar 14]
Robinhood         1-5 Excelsior         
[Mar 15]
Notch             0-0 Boskamp           
SNL 	          1-2 Inter Moengotapoe 
[Mar 16]
WBC               1-1 Leo Victor        

Round 14
[Mar 21]
Takdier Boys      1-2 WBC               
[Mar 22]
Excelsior         2-0 Notch             
Boskamp           4-1 Robinhood         
[Mar 23]
Leo Victor        4-0 SNL 	          
[Apr 26]
Inter Moengotapoe 3-1 Transvaal         

Round 15
[Mar 28]
Takdier Boys      1-3 Boskamp           
[Mar 29]
Notch             3-1 SNL 	          
Robinhood         1-7 WBC               
[Mar 30]
Transvaal         0-0 Leo Victor        
[May 3]
Excelsior         1-4 Inter Moengotapoe 

Round 16
[Apr 4]
Leo Victor        1-1 Robinhood         
[Apr 5]
Inter Moengotapoe 3-1 Takdier Boys      
Boskamp           1-1 Transvaal         
SNL 	          1-2 Excelsior         
[Apr 9]
WBC               2-2 Notch             

Round 17
[May 7]
Transvaal         1-3 Excelsior         
[May 9]	 
Robinhood         3-5 SNL 	          
[May 10]
Notch             1-2 Takdier Boys      
Leo Victor        3-2 Boskamp           
[May 11]	 
WBC               1-3 Inter Moengotapoe 

Round 18
[May 17]
Excelsior         1-0 Leo Victor        
Inter Moengotapoe 4-0 Boskamp           
Takdier Boys      n/p Robinhood         [referee strike]
Transvaal         1-1 Notch             
[May 18]
SNL 	          5-4 WBC               
[May 20]
Takdier Boys      1-1 Robinhood         

Final Table:  

 1.Inter Moengotapoe (Moengo) 18  14  2  2  42-17  44  Champions
 2.Excelsior (Meerzorg)       18  12  2  4  40-28  38
 3.Leo Victor (Paramaribo)    18   9  5  4  38-20  32
 4.WBC (Paramaribo)           18   8  5  5  46-30  29
 5.SNL (Paramaribo)           18   7  4  7  36-39  25
 6.SV Notch (Moengo)          18   4  7  7  26-30  19
 7.Takdier Boys (Paramaribo)  18   5  4  9  24-31  19
 8.Transvaal (Paramaribo)     18   4  6  8  19-30  18  Playoff
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 9.Boskamp (Boskamp)          18   5  3 10  32-45  18  Playoff
-----------------------------------------------------
10.Robinhood (Paramaribo)     18   0  6 12  20-53   6  Relegated

Topscorers:
16 Gregory Righters (WBC)
15 Virgill Najoe (Excelsior)
14 Kareem Kwassie (Inter Moengotapoe)
   Ailton Paiva (Excelsior)
13 Clyde Riedewald (Boskamp)

Playoff against Ninth Place [May 25, dr.ir. Franklin Essedstadion, Paramaribo]
Transvaal         0-0 Boskamp           [aet, 3-1 pen]

NB: Transvaal remain at top level, Boskamp enter relegation playoff

Promotion/Relegation Playoff

First Leg [Jun 1, Eliazerstadion, Groningen]
Boskamp           1-0 Botopasi          

Second Leg [Jun 7, NGVB-stadion, Paramaribo]
Botopasi          3-0 Boskamp           
 
NB: Botopasi promoted, Boskamp relegated

Cup Tournaments

SVB Cup 2014

SVB Cup 2014

Round 1
[Jan 4]
Ganzee            2-2 ACoconut          [7-6 pen]
Santos (Nickerie) 1-2 West United       
Tammenga          2-3 Boma Star         
De Rest           2-1 Papatam           
Jong Rambaan      2-1 Botopasi          
[Jan 5]
Real Saramacca    2-3 Tammenga          
Locomotief        0-6 Caravan           
Kitha             1-5 Deva Boys         
Inter Milan       1-3 Voorwaarts        
Peto              1-2 Inter Rica        
[Jan 7]
Young Rhythm      3-4 Kamel Dewaker     
BMD 1 ´           2-3 Randjiet Boys     

Round 2
[Jan 10]
De Rest           0-3 Kamel Dewaker     
Boma Star         1-1 Jong Rambaan      [7-6 pen]
[Jan 11]
Ganzee            1-6 Voorwaarts        
Deva Boys         w/o Randjiet Boys     [Randjiet Boys dns]
[Jan 12]
Inter Rica        1-2 West United       
Tammenga          1-5 Caravan           

1/8 Finals [Hoofdklasse clubs enter]
[Feb 5]
Takdier Boys      1-0 SNL 	          
Deva Boys         4-1 WBC               
[Feb 7]
Boma Star         3-1 Robinhood         
Kamel Dewaker     1-1 Excelsior         [7-8 pen]
[Feb 8]
West United       2-2 Caravan           [5-3 pen]
Voorwaarts        2-1 Inter Moengotapoe 
[Feb 9]
Notch             4-1 Transvaal         
Leo Victor        4-1 Boskamp           

Quarterfinals
[Apr 15]
Leo Victor        5-0 Voorwaarts        
West United       1-1 Deva Boys         [5-4 pen]
[Apr 16]
Takdier Boys      2-3 Notch             
Excelsior         2-4 Boma Star         

Semifinals [Apr 22]
Notch             2-1 West United       
Leo Victor        2-2 Boma Star         [4-1 pen]

Final [Apr 27]
Leo Victor        4-2 Notch             


Eerste Klasse

Final Table:

 1.Boma Star (Lelydorp)       22  16  4  2  67-29  52  Promoted
-----------------------------------------------------
 2.Botopasi (Nwe. Generatie)  22  15  2  5  58-36  47  Promotion Playoff
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 3.ACoconut (Brokopondo)      22  13  4  5  55-29  43
 4.Voorwaarts (Paramaribo)    22  12  4  6  44-35  40
 5.Deva Boys (Meerzorg)       22  11  4  7  45-41  37
 6.Caravan (Livorno)          22  10  5  7  47-27  35
 7.West United (Coronie)      22   9  1 12  41-42  28
 8.Kamel Dewaker (Livorno)    22   7  2 13  36-51  23
 9.Papatam (Albina)           22   5  6 11  47-60  21
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
10.Inter Rica (Moengo)        22   4  7 11  21-29  19  Relegation Playoff
-----------------------------------------------------
11.Randjiet Boys (Leidingen)  22   4  6 12  28-52  18  Relegated
12.Tammenga (Kwatta)          22   3  1 18  37-95  10  Relegated

Promotion/Relegation Playoff

First Leg  [Jun 7]
Inter Rica        1-1 PVV               

Second Leg [Jun 14]
PVV               4-1 Inter Rica        

NB: PVV promoted, Inter Rica relegated

Lower Levels (regional)

Introduction

NB: the third level is organised at district level;
    there are 10 'districten' (of which Sipaliwini does not have
    a league) and 9 'randdistricten' (border districts - these
    are the districts bordering the capital Paramaribo);
    the winners and runners-up of each district competition enter
    the lidbondentoernooi which determines the clubs to be promoted
    to the second level.

Districten
                     Region    Champions         Runners-Up
Albina               Oost (M)  Real Bergi        Jong Sportivo
Brokopondo           Zuid      Real Cicero       Tahitie
Commewijne            Oost (C)  Ellen             Zoelen
Coronie              West      The R. Brothers   Flamingo
Moengo               Oost (M)  TOK               Peto
Nickerie             West      De Ster           Prakash 
Para                 Zuid      Pijoré            Paraguay
Saramacca            West      Real Saramacca    Fortuna
Sipaliwini           Zuid        no competition
Wageningen           West      Corinthiërs       Tuna

Randdistricten
                     Region    Champions         Runners-Up
Blauwgrond           Noord     Inter Vlijt        Real Abenaston 
Domburg              Zuid      Redijk             Vasco  
Kwatta               Noord     Massief           Real Spartaan
Leidingen            Midden    Amar Deep         Inter Milan 
Lelydorp             Midden    Jong Rambaan      Flamingo
Livorno              Midden    Eendracht         Vredenburg Star
Meerzorg             Oost (C)  Nishaan 42        Jai Hind
Nieuwe Generatie     Noord     Flora             PVV 
Wanica               Midden    Inter Kaya        FTN

The 19 districts are grouped geographically (Midden=Centre, Noord=North, 
Oost=East (C=Commewijne, M=Marowijne), West=West, Zuid=South).  


Integra Port Services Lidbondentoernooi 2014
Played between the 36 champions and runners-up of the district leagues.

Regional Stage | Final Round

Regional Stage

Regio Oost | Regio Zuid | Regio Noord | Regio Midden | Regio West 

Regio Oost

Round 1 [Mar 23]
Jong Sportivo     1-3 Nishaan 42        
Real Bergi        0-0 Jai Hind          
Peto              2-3 Ellen             
TOK               2-0 Zoelen            

Round 2 [Mar 30]
Jai Hind          2-0 Peto              
Nishaan 42        1-1 TOK               
Zoelen            0-3 Jong Sportivo     
Ellen             2-2 Real Bergi        

Round 3 [Apr 6]
Real Bergi        6-1 Peto              
Ellen             1-2 Jai Hind          
Nishaan 42        6-1 Zoelen            
TOK               2-1 Jong Sportivo     

Final Tables:

Poule A
 1.Jai Hind                    3   2  1  0   4- 1   7  [Meerzorg]
 2.Real Bergi                  3   1  2  0   8- 3   5  [Albina]
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 3.Ellen                       3   1  1  1   6- 6   4  [Commewijne]
 4.Peto                        3   0  0  3   3-11   0  {Moengo]

Poule B
 1.Nishaan 42                  3   2  1  0  10- 3   7  [Meerzorg]
 2.TOK                         3   2  1  0   5- 2   7  [Moengo]
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 3.Jong Sportivo               3   1  0  2   5- 5   3  [Albina]
 4.Zoelen                      3   0  0  3   1-11   1  [Commewijne]

Semifinals

First Legs [Apr 13]
Jai Hind          1-5 TOK               
Real Bergi        2-2 Nishaan 42        

Second Legs [Apr 19]
TOK               2-1 Jai Hind          
Nishaan 42        2-2 Real Bergi        [Nishaan 42 on pen]

Qualified: Nishaan 42, TOK

Regio Zuid

Round 1 [Mar 22]
Paraguay          3-0 Redijk             
Pijoré            5-1 Vasco             

Round 2
[Mar 29]
Tahitie           2-3 Paraguay          
[Mar 30]
Real Cicero       4-0 Pijoré            

Round 3
[Apr 5]
Vasco             n/p Real Cicero       [Vasco dns]
[Apr 6]
Redijk             1-4 Tahitie           

Final Tables:

Poule C
 1.Real Cicero                 1   1  0  0   4- 0   3  [Brokopondo]
 2.Pijoré                      2   1  0  1   5- 5   3  [Para]
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 3.Vasco                       1   0  0  1   1- 5   0  [Domburg]

Poule D
 1.Paraguay                    2   2  0  0   6- 2   6  [Para]
 2.Tahitie                     2   1  0  1   6- 4   3  [Brokopondo]
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 3.Redijk                       2   0  0  2   1- 7   0  [Domburg]

Semifinals

First Legs
[Apr 12]
Tahitie           2-1 Pijoré            
[Apr 13]
Real Cicero       4-1 Paraguay          

Second Legs [Apr 19]
Pijoré            4-1 Tahitie           [Tahitie on pen; NB: goal difference irrelevant]
Paraguay          2-3 Real Cicero       

Qualified: Real Cicero, Tahitie 

Regio Noord

Round 1
[Mar 23]
PVV               6-0 Massief           
[Apr 2]
Flora             3-0 Real Spartaan     

Round 2 [Mar 30]
Real Spartaan     2-1 Real Abenaston    
Massief           3-6 Inter Vlijt        

Round 3 [Apr 6]
Real Abenaston    0-4 Flora             
Inter Vlijt        1-5 PVV               

Final Tables:

Poule E
 1.Flora                       2   2  0  0   7- 0   6  [Nieuwe Generatie]
 2.Real Spartaan               2   1  0  1   2- 4   3  [Kwatta]
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 3.Real Abenaston              2   0  0  2   1- 6   0  [Blauwgrond]

Poule F
 1.PVV                         2   2  0  0  11- 1   6  [Nieuwe Generatie]
 2.Inter Vlijt                  2   1  0  1   7- 8   3  [Blauwgrond]
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 3.Massief                     2   0  0  2   3-12   0  [Kwatta]

Semifinals

First Legs [Apr 13]
PVV               5-3 Real Spartaan     
Flora             n/p Inter Vlijt        

Second Legs
[Apr 19]
Real Spartaan     1-1 PVV               
[Apr 27]
Inter Vlijt        2-1 Flora             

Qualified: PVV, Inter Vlijt

Regio Midden

Round 1
[Mar 22]
Flamingo          1-1 Vredenburg Star   
[Mar 23]
Jong Rambaan      3-0 Eendracht         
Inter Milan       2-1 FTN               
Amar Deep         2-1 Inter Kaya        

Round 2
[Mar 29]
Inter Kaya        2-1 Flamingo          
[Mar 30]
Eendracht         1-1 Inter Milan       
FTN               1-1 Jong Rambaan      
[Apr 1]
Vredenburg Star   0-0 Amar Deep         

Round 3 [Apr 6]
Jong Rambaan      5-0 Inter Milan       
Eendracht         1-1 FTN               
Inter Kaya        2-0 Vredenburg Star   
Amar Deep         2-1 Flamingo          

Final Tables:

Poule G
 1.Jong Rambaan                3   2  1  0   9- 1   7  [Lelydorp]
 2.Inter Milan                 3   1  1  1   3- 7   4  [Leidingen]
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 3.FTN                         3   0  2  1   3- 4   2  [Wanica]
 4.Eendracht                   3   0  1  2   2- 5   1  [Livorno]

Poule H
 1.Amar Deep                   3   2  1  0   4- 2   7  [Leidingen]
 2.Inter Kaya                  3   2  0  1   5- 3   6  [Wanica]
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 3.Vredenburg Star             3   0  2  1   1- 3   2  [Livorno]
 4.Flamingo                    3   0  1  2   3- 5   1  [Lelydorp]

Semifinals

First Legs 
[Apr 12]
Jong Rambaan      3-1 Amar Deep         
[Apr 13]
Inter Milan       3-3 Inter Kaya        

Second Legs
[Apr 17]
Inter Kaya        0-2 Inter Milan       
[Apr 19]
Amar Deep         2-4 Jong Rambaan      

Qualified: Jong Rambaan, Inter Milan 

Regio West

Round 1
[Mar 22]
Flamingo          2-4 Real Saramacca    
Tuna              0-4 De Ster           
[Mar 23]
The R. Brothers   0-0 Fortuna           
Corinthiërs       3-2 Prakash           

Round 2
[Mar 29]
Fortuna           1-0 Tuna              
De Ster           0-1 The R. Brothers   
[Mar 30]
Real Saramacca    1-0 Corinthiërs       
Prakash           3-2 Flamingo          

Round 3
[Apr 5]
The R. Brothers   5-0 Tuna              
De Ster           2-1 Fortuna           
[Apr 6]
Real Saramacca    2-1 Prakash           
Corinthiërs       2-1 Flamingo          

Final Tables:

Poule I
 1.Real Saramacca              3   3  0  0   7- 3   9  [Saramacca]
 2.Corinthiërs                 3   2  0  1   5- 4   6  [Wageningen]
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 3.Prakash                     3   1  0  2   6- 7   3  [Nickerie]
 4.Flamingo                    3   0  0  3   5- 9   0  [Coronie]

Poule J
 1.The Righteous Brothers      3   2  1  0   6- 0   7  [Coronie]
 2.De Ster                     3   2  0  1   6- 2   6  [Nickerie]
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 3.Fortuna                     3   1  1  1   2- 2   4  [Saramacca]
 4.Tuna                        3   0  0  3   0-10   0  [Wageningen]

Semifinals

First Legs [Apr 13]
Real Saramacca    1-1 De Ster           
The R. Brothers   3-2 Corinthiërs       

Second Legs [Apr 19]
De Ster           2-2 Real Saramacca    [De Ster on pen]
Corinthiërs       2-3 The R. Brothers   

Qualified: The Righteous Brothers, De Ster

Final Round

Round 1
[Apr 26]
Nishaan 42       10-0 De Ster           
[Apr 27]
Jong Rambaan      2-0 The R. Brothers   
TOK               2-0 Tahitie           
Inter Milan       2-1 Real Cicero       
Inter Vlijt        bye PVV               

Round 2
[May 3]
De Ster           0-0 Inter Milan       
[May 4]
The R. Brothers   1-1 Inter Vlijt        
Tahitie           1-3 Jong Rambaan      
Real Cicero       2-4 PVV               
TOK               bye Nishaan 42        

Round 3
[May 10]
The R. Brothers   2-1 Tahitie           
Real Cicero       4-3 De Ster           
[May 11]
Inter Vlijt        0-1 TOK               
PVV               2-4 Nishaan 42        
Jong Rambaan      bye Inter Milan       

Round 4
[May 17]
Inter Vlijt        0-1 Jong Rambaan      
TOK               2-1 The R. Brothers   
[May 18]
PVV               2-0 Inter Milan       
Nishaan 42        6-2 Real Cicero       
Tahitie           bye De Ster           

Round 5
[May 24]
De Ster           2-3 PVV               
Inter Milan       0-2 Nishaan 42        
[May 25]
Tahitie           0-1 Inter Vlijt        
Jong Rambaan      1-0 TOK               
The R. Brothers   bye Real Cicero       

Final Tables:

Poule K
 1.Jong Rambaan                4   4  0  0   7- 1  12  Promoted  [Lelydorp]
-----------------------------------------------------
 2.TOK                         4   3  0  1   5- 2   9  Third Place Match  [Moengo]
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 3.Inter Vlijt                  4   1  1  2   2- 3   4  [Blauwgrond]
 4.The Righteous Brothers      4   1  1  2   4- 6   4  [Coronie]
 5.Tahitie                     4   0  0  4   2- 8   0  [Brokopondo]

Poule L
 1.Nishaan 42                  4   4  0  0  22- 4  12  Promoted  [Meerzorg]
-----------------------------------------------------
 2.PVV                         4   3  0  1  11- 8   9  Third Place Match  [Nieuwe Generatie]
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
 3.Inter Milan                 4   1  1  2   2- 5   4  [Leidingen]
 4.Real Cicero                 4   1  0  3   9-15   3  [Brokopondo]
 5.De Ster                     4   0  1  3   5-17   1  [Nickerie]

Third Place Match [May 31, dr.ir. Franklin Essedstadion]
TOK               0-1 PVV               

NB: PVV to Promotion Playoff

Final [May 31, dr.ir. Franklin Essedstadion]
Jong Rambaan      2-1 Nishaan 42        


2012/13.

2014/15.

list of champions.

list of district tournaments champions.

list of (super) cup finals.

list of foundation dates.


About this document

Prepared and maintained by Karel Stokkermans for the Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation

Author: Karel Stokkermans (karel@rsssf.com).
Last updated: 10 Jan 2020

(C) Copyright Karel Stokkermans and RSSSF 2013/20
You are free to copy this document in whole or part provided that proper acknowledgement is given to the author. All rights reserved.